Divine Truth

Divine Truth

Islam

بِسۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡم

In name of Allah most gracious, most merciful.

In the religious sense, Islam means submission to the will of Allah and obedience to His law. By submitting to Allah we are at peace knowing that Allah is all one needs as he is the Creator, the Sustainer and the Protector of all creation.

To be a Muslim similarly means the loving submission to Allah.

The religion of Islam is based on Quran and Sunnah (meaning the teachings of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ). Within the Sunnah we also have the Shariah (Islamic Laws).

Islam can be described very basically in two sentences

  1. Allah as the creator of all things
  2. Allah’s Creation

This then can be further broken down in its simplest form:

  1. Allah
  • Recognition that Allah is the One and Only God
  • That Allah is the creator of everything
  • To be Grateful to Allah
  • Obedience to Allah
  1. Allah’s Creation
  • To be Good to all of Allah’s Creation
  • To be fair. Even if you have an enemies, you do not need to be nice to them but you have to be fair with them.

The best of people are those who are both good to people and animals and are also fair.

Each one of these points are of course very broad and its full explanation can be covered at length.

Islam is not just a religion but a way of life. Islam teaches us a balance way of life that encompasses obedience to the Allah and to ones parents, continuous remembrance of Allah in everything we do, riotousness, forgiveness towards others, morality, cleanliness, moderation in everything we do, kindness to others, respect for all creation, to be honest, just and fair in all dealings, to be constantly aware of the misguidance of Iblees (satan), to establish regular prayer and seek the forgiveness of Allah and to assist the poor and needy.

It is found that Islam is probably the most well documented religion of the 21st century with its lineage tracing right back to the Prophet Muhammed ﷺ. It is also found that Muhammad’s ﷺ life is similarly the most well documented of any prophet and preserved with scholars through the centuries ensuring the facts are preserved and authenticated with the likes of the above collections and many others.

One of the most important aspects of Islamic belief is to ensure facts are authentic and the teachings of the Prophet Mohammad ﷺ is preserved and authentic. In this sense Islam is unique in that Muslims read the Quran in the original Arabic language as it was revealed to the Prophet Muhammad. All the Hadith (sayings of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ) is also written in Arabic. When Muslims quote facts they often quote the original text as well as the translated text so that anyone can verify that the facts are not distorted or changed. Similarly Allah has vowed to protect the Quran.  Muslims can only perform Salah by reciting verses from the original text and language of the Quran from memory. In this way there is no room for satan to corrupt the text and teachings as he has done with other religions.

Core Islamic Beliefs: Six Articles of Faith;

  1. The most important teaching of Islam is that Allah is ONE and has no partners and equals, Allah is Unique as taught to all the prophets to believe in Allah and not to associate partners to Allah. The very name Allah is also unique unlike the English word God that associates others with God like; God Parents, God Son, God Like etc.
بِسۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
قُلۡ هُوَ اللّٰهُ اَحَدٌ‌ ۚ‏ ﴿۱﴾  اَللّٰهُ الصَّمَدُ‌ ۚ‏ ﴿۲﴾  لَمۡ يَلِدۡ   ۙ وَلَمۡ يُوۡلَدۡ ۙ‏ ﴿۳﴾  وَلَمۡ يَكُنۡ لَّهٗ كُفُوًا اَحَدٌ‏ ﴿۴﴾ 
 
  1. Say: He is Allah, the One and Only;
  2. Allah, the Eternal, Absolute;
  3. He begetteth not, nor is He begotten;
  4. And there is none like unto Him.

In the above ayah (script of Quran) Allah tells the prophet Mohammad ﷺ to inform his people that “He is Allah” (he gives his name as Allah) and to inform the people “He is One”, “He is eternal and absolute and there is none like unto him”.

The English word God is not found in any of the original Jewish or Christian text. The biggest sin in Islam is to associate partners with Allah as so many generations has done with their Idols and ascribing partners to Allah and is still done today. It is said that the only sin that Allah will not forgive should the person pass away without making repentance is committing Shirk (associating partners with Allah and saying Allah has a son or an equal).

  1. The belief in the Angles and the unseen.
  2. The belief in all the prophets sent by Allah. These prophets start with Adam and include Nooh (Noah), Ebraheem (Abraham), Moosa (Moses), Isa (Jesus) and Muhammad, peace be upon them. Allah communicated his guidance through the prophets so that we are rightly guided. The message sent by each prophet was always the same that Allah is One.
  3. To believe in the books revealed by Allah. The books revealed are;
  • The scrolls of Abraheem (AS) (Abraham)
  • The Tawrat – given to Moosa (AS) (Moses)
  • The Zabur – Psalms of Dawood (AS) (David)
  • The Injeel – gospel of Isa (AS) (Jesus)
  • The Quran – Mohammad ﷺ 
  1. Belief in Day of Judgment: The life of this world and all that is in it will come to an end on an appointed day. At that time, every person will be raised from the dead. Allah will judge each person individually, according to his faith and his good and bad deeds. Allah will show mercy and fairness in judgment. According to Islamic teachings, those who believe in Allah and perform good deeds will be eternally rewarded in Jannah (Heaven).Those who reject faith in Allah will be eternally punished in the fire of Hell.
  2. The belief in Destiny and Devine Decree: Allah is the Sustainer of all life, nothing happens except by His Will and with His full knowledge. This belief does not contradict the idea of free will. Allah does not force us, our choices are known to Allah beforehand because His knowledge and He is all knowing. This recognition helps the believer through difficulties and hardships.

Some Core Teachings of Prophet Muhammad

Classical scholars of Islam have condensed the teachings of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ into a few statements. These comprehensive statements touch every aspect of our lives. Some of them are:

1)    Actions are judged by the intention behind them.

2)   Allah is Pure and does not accept anything unless it is pure and Allah has commanded the faithful with what He commanded the prophets.

3)   Part of a person’s good observance of Islam is to leave aside what does not concern him.

4)   A person cannot be a complete believer unless he loves for his brother what he loves for himself.

5)   One should not harm himself or others.

6)   Don’t let your focus in this life be to amass worldly gain and Allah will love you. Don’t be concerned with what people have, and they will love you.

THE POWER AND MAJESTY OF ALLAH

Abu Dharr (radi Allahu anhu) said, The Prophet (sal Allahu alaihi wa sallam) said, “Allah, the Exalted, and Glorious, said; ‘O My slaves, I have prohibited Myself injustice; and have made oppression unlawful for you, so do not oppress one another. O My slaves, all of you are liable to err except the one whom I guide on the Right Path, so seek guidance from Me so that I will guide you to the Right Path. O My slaves, all of you are hungry except the one whom I feed, so ask food from Me, I will feed you. O My slaves, all of you are naked except those whom I clothe, so ask clothing of Me and I shall clothe you. O My slaves, you commit sins night and day and I forgive all sins, so seek My forgiveness and I shall forgive you. O My slaves, you can neither do Me any harm nor can you do Me any good. O My slaves, were the first of you and the last of you, the human of you and jinn of you to be as pious as the most pious heart of any man of you, that would not increase My domain a thing. O My slaves, were the first of you, and the last of you, the human of you and the jinn of you to be as wicked as the most wicked heart of any man of you, that would not decrease My domain in a thing. O My slaves, were the first of you and the last of you, the human of you and the jinn of you to stand in one place and make a request of Me, and were I to give everyone what he requested, that would not decrease what I have, any more than a needle decrease the sea if put into it. O My slaves, it is but your deeds that I reckon for you and then recompense you for, so let him who finds good (i.e., in the Hereafter) praise Allah and let him who finds other than that blame no one but himself.”’ [Sahih Muslim]

This Hadith mentions the Power and Majesty of Allah and stresses that one should supplicate Allah for everything that one needs. From guidance to sustenance, the treasures of everything are with Him – the treasures which are unlimited and any withdrawal from them does not make any reduction in them.

Similar is the case of His Sovereignty; it is not affected even if the whole universe supports or opposes them. Thus, it is in the interest of man that he should dedicate himself entirely to Allah and beg all his needs from Him and Him Alone.

The Core Religious Practices of Islam: The Five “Pillars” of Islam

The first three of the five pillars are compulsory and the last two are only compulsory when one has the means.

  1. Declaration of Faith: The “Declaration of Faith” is the statement, “La ilaha illa Allah wa Muhammad Rasul-ullah”, meaning “There is no deity worthy of being worship except Allah, and Muhammad ﷺ is the Messenger (Prophet) of Allah”). The Declaration of Faith is more than just a statement; it must be shown with one’s actions. To convert to the faith of Islam, a person has to say this statement.
  2. To establish Salah (the 5 daily prayers). Salah is the means of purification and a protection from evil. Salah is the key to acceptance of ones Duahs (personal prayers), ones fast, Zakaat (charity) and Allah’s forgiveness. Salah is how a Muslim connects with Allah and gains piety and righteousness. Salah is also the key to entering Janah (Paradise)
  3. To fast in the month of Ramadan; The period of intense spiritual devotion is known as the fast of Ramadan in which no food, drink and sex, vile talk is allowed during the fast which is from sun-rise to sun-set. The nights of the month of Ramadan is spent in prayer where the 30 Juzz (chapters of Quran) is recited from memory, one each night in congregational Salah. The fast is more than just staying away from food and drink, it is about sacrificing and restraining our self from that which is hardest for a Muslim to stay away from. This practice of restraint allows a Muslim to stay away from all that is not good. The fast allows a Muslim to sympathise with those who do not have food. It teachers Muslims humility and great fullness that they have food to eat when so many people suffer from poverty and starvation. The fast is also a purification for our bodies. We eat continuously every day and our organs are over worked. During the period of fast our bodies gets a chance to recuperate. A Muslim must also give much charity during the month of Ramadan. This will earn Allah’s love and forgiveness. One of the most important aspects of the month of Ramadaan and a fasting Muslim is gaining closeness to Allah for Allah loves those who sacrifice that which man loves for His sake as He tested Ebraheem (Abraham) when Allah ordered him to sacrifice his son Ismail to prove his obedience to Allah.

    (Allah says about the fasting person), ‘He has left his food, drink and desires for My sake. The fast is for Me (Allah). So I will reward (the fasting person) for it and the reward of good deeds is multiplied ten times.” Narrated by Abu Huraira (a companion of Muhammad ﷺ).

    The Prophet said, “There is a gate in Paradise called Ar-Raiyan, and those who observe fasts will enter through it on the Day of Resurrection and none except them will enter through it. It will be said, ‘Where are those who used to observe fasts?’ They will get up, and none except them will enter through it. After their entry the gate will be closed and nobody will enter through it.” Narrated by Abu Huraira and Sahl.

    Allah’s Apostle said, “When the month of Ramadan starts, the gates of the heaven are opened and the gates of Hell are closed and the devils are chained.”  Narrated by Abu Huraira. The Prophet said, “Whoever established prayers on the night of Qadr out of sincere faith and hoping for a reward from Allah, then all his previous sins will be forgiven; and whoever fasts in the month of Ramadan out of sincere faith, and hoping for a reward from Allah, then all his previous sins will be forgiven.” Narrated by Abu Huraira

  4. Zakkah: Allah has prescribed on every Muslim who has the means the giving of alms (charity). This is a compulsory charity for the wealthy who have to give 2.5% of the accumulated wealth per year.

  5. To perform Hajj; Hajj is the most intense spiritual experience for a Muslim. It is obligatory for every Muslim who has the means to perform the Hajj at least once in his/her lifetime. The Hajj is the ultimate form of worship, as it involves the spirit of all the other rituals and demands of the believer great sacrifice. On this unique occasion, nearly five million Muslims today from all over the globe meet in Saudi Arabia to perform their duty towards Allah.

The rites of Hajj, which go back to the time of Prophet Ebraheem (AS) who built the Ka’bah, are observed over five or six days, beginning on the eighth day of the last month of the year, named Dhul-Hijjah (pilgrimage). These rites include circumambulating the Ka’bah (Tawaf), and going between the mountains of Safa and Marwah 7 times, as Hajar (Abraheem’s (AS) wife) did during her search for water for her son Isma’il. Then the pilgrims stand together on the wide plain of Arafah and join in prayers for God’s forgiveness, in what is often thought of as a preview of the Last Judgment. The pilgrims also cast stones at a stone pillar which represents Satan. A person’s status or wealth on the days of Hajj has no bearing. Every man is draped only with two pieces of white cloth and stand equal in the site of Allah. The pilgrimage ends with a festival, called Eid Al-Adha, which is celebrated with prayers, the sacrifice of an animal, and the exchange of greetings and gifts in Muslim communities everywher

Core of Islamic Law or Shariah

The core of Islamic Law is the preservation of:

1)    Religion

2)    Life

3)    Family

4)    Mind

5)    Wealth

6)   Some contemporary scholars suggest either justice or liberty to be the sixth category.

In the vision of Islam, they are known as “essentials” because they are considered essential to human welfare.

Benefits of Gratitude (Shukr)

Gratitude cultivates happiness and wellbeing. Some of the benefits of Gratitude are listed below that we should know so that if anyone is there who is not thanking Allah should start Shukr.

  • Better Relationship with Allah:Gratitude is one of the most beloved characteristics of Allah Almighty. Being thankful is the best way to get closer to Allah (SWT). By Shukr we invoke His mercy and love upon us. Gratitude is the key to Allah’s reward and pleasure. When we thankful to Him we try getting better our relationship with Allah Almighty. In Holy Quran, Allah stated in a way: “…And whoever desires the reward of this world – We will give him thereof, and whoever desires the reward of the Hereafter – We will give him thereof. And We will reward the grateful” (Quran, 3:145).
  • Prosperity in Life: Gratitude (Shukr), or thankfulness, is a quality that will lead to success both in this life and in the next that will never be going to an end. Allah (SWT) promises us mercy and an increase in His favors upon us if we are grateful. In Holy Quran Allah says: “And [remember] when your Lord proclaimed, ‘If you are grateful, I will surely increase you [in favor]…”(Quran, 14:7). From this verse, we can conclude that if we grateful to Allah Almighty for His blessing then He will give us abundantly in return.
  • Prevents Punishment from Allah: In Holy Quran Allah says: “If Allah took mankind to task by that which they deserve, He would not leave a living creature on the surface of the earth; but He grants them reprieve unto an appointed term, and when their term comes – then verily Allah is Ever All-Seer of His slaves”(Quran, 35:45). Allah will grant us blessings when we Gratitude Him and also He is justified to punish us for our negligence. So from gratitude, we can get His blessings and if we don’t do it then He will punish us. Gratitude prevents punishment from Allah Almighty.
  • Seeking Pleasure of Allah: We (Muslims) spend all our lives to get the pleasure of Allah and gratitude is one way to do so not only in this life but also in the hereafter when we will express it to Him for His blessings. Shukr is the best mean to attain the pleasure of Allah.
  • Reduce Materialism and Boosts Sympathy: Ultimate happiness does not rely upon worldly possessions. Gratitude has actually been shown to reduce feelings of materialism and its consequential negative effects. Greater expressions of gratitude were associated with lower materialism and a higher life satisfaction. If you want a satisfied life then always thankful to Allah Almighty.

Being Grateful and Showing Gratitude to Allah

Gratitude is not only the heart and essence of Islam; it is also the key to attracting abundance, prosperity, peace, and success in one’s life. We can say that Gratitude and Shukr are the most important aspects of Islam. We as a Muslims should always thankful to Almighty Allah for all the blessings that given by Him. He is the Creator of this world alone and also He is The Most Merciful for all His humankind. If we thankful to him then it means we are believers and if not then disbelievers. In Holy Quran, Allah Almighty says: “And remember! Your Lord caused to be declared: If ye are grateful, I will add more unto you” (Quran, 14:5-7).

From the verses of Holy Quran, we came to know that gratitude is essential to Islamic character and that practicing gratitude in Islam is the means to greater prosperity. We have to be grateful for everything that we have in which health, wealth, breath, family, friends and for all other things whether it’s too small or big and most importantly for being a Muslim and from the Ummah of Prophet ﷺ. Allah loves those who are being grateful to Him for everything that they have.

Gratitude (Shukr) is the path to loving Allah. Shukr is the only argument one needs against disbelief. It is the cure for sadness and materialism as well and is the motivation to do better tomorrow. Thanks and gratitude to someone are basically repay the kindness and giving praise to the one who has done good and kind things to us. The kindest One is the Almighty Allah so we should always be thankful to Him for everything.

Allah Almighty commanded us to be grateful to Him for all His blessings and try to do Shukr all time for what He has provided us. In Holy Quran, Allah Almighty says: “Therefore remember Me (by praying, glorifying). I will remember you, and be grateful to Me (for My countless favors on you) and never be ungrateful to Me” (Quran, 2:152).

Allah has granted us the nature to be grateful and we should, therefore, Gratitude (Shukr) to Allah Almighty. There are many benefits of Gratitude that we will get from Allah; below we will discuss some of them.

Ways to Practice Gratitude in Islam

There are some ways of following which we should show gratitude to Allah Almighty.

  • Say Al-Hamdulillah Regularly: A constant assertion of this phrase reminds us of the source of all blessings and happiness in this life. This practice of attributing all good actions to Allah keeps us humble. Our beloved Prophet ﷺ said: “Allah is pleased with His servant if when he eats something he thanks Allah for it, and when he drinks something he thanks Allah for it” (Muslim). So we should always be thankful to Allah Almighty by saying Al-Hamdulillah.
  • Be Patient and Thankful for Difficult Time: The strength of our gratitude is tested in difficulties when we have to face a difficult time. Allah wants to see how thankful we truly are when we lose our job or a loved one, or when we feel ill and or get injured. The Prophet ﷺ said, “How wonderful is the case of a Believer! There is good for him in whatever happens to him -and none, apart from him, enjoys this blessing.”(Muslim). This means after every difficulty there comes an ease and who stay patient and thankful to Allah in difficult times will get a great reward.
  • Fall in Prostration when receiving blessings from Allah:We should fall in prostrate (Sajdah) when we receive any kind of blessings from Almighty Allah. Our beloved Prophet ﷺ also used to prostrate when He receives something pleasant to thanks, Allah Almighty.
  • Keep your Expectations Below: Always admire those who are below than you means who don’t have enough like you and instead of comparing oneself with others always Shukr to Allah for what you have. We should be thankful to Allah for all his blessings because there are many people who don’t have that much. Gratitude is the best way to please Allah and thanks to Allah. Our beloved Prophet ﷺ said: “Look at those people who have less than you and never look at those who have more grants than you, this will ensure that you will not depreciate Allah’s favors”(Muslim).
  • Don’t be too picky and entertain others: Insensitivity to other people’s preferences and inability to accommodate others is a sign of selfishness, arrogance, and ungratefulness. Be comfortable in every situation and you will become grateful.

Developing the attitude of Gratitude towards Allah will change your life. One will enjoy the blessings of his Lord, thanking his Lord for those blessings and praising Him for helping him to be among those who give thanks. So always Shukr to Allah Almighty for His blessings and be humble.

Abu Hurairah (RA)  narrates that the Holy Prophet ﷺ mentioned that Allah The Almighty states:

“My servant transgresses against Me, while it does not behove him to do so. He abuses Me, while it does not behove him to do so. His transgression against Me is that he says that ‘Allah the Almighty, having once created me, will not resurrect me (after I am dead).’ And his abuse of Me is that he claims that ‘Allah has taken unto Himself a son,’ whereas I am Self-Sufficient, The One on Whom everything else depends. I have never begot, nor was I begotten, and there never was one like unto Me.” (Masnad Ahmad)

THE SALAT

Prayer, or Salat, was made obligatory for all Muslims, whether they be rich or poor, strong or weak, black or white, male or female. Prayer allows the believer to enrich their spirituality and cultivate the soul’s right to love and worship the Creator, Allah.

“Verily, I am Allah! There is none worthy of worship but I, so worship Me and offer prayer perfectly for My remembrance.” (Quran, Taha, 13-14)

The importance of prayer is conveyed constantly in the Quran and was also stressed by the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ : “Know that among your duties, prayer is foremost”.

The performance of prayer five times a day is considered vital to attain success in this life and the hereafter. Following the testimony of faith, performance of the prayers at their correct times and complete in bowings, prostrations and humility, will guarantee forgiveness from God and everlasting paradise. Muslims believe that the first matter that they will be brought to account for on the Day of Judgment is the prayer. If it is sound, then the rest of their deeds will be sound. And if it is bad, then the rest of his deeds will be bad.

Prayer provides a constant reminder of the essence of our creation and provides a direct connection to Allah, who linked success and felicity to humility in prayer. It emphasizes the proximity between religion and daily life. Life, from an Islamic standpoint, is to be directed to Allah. Life is an opportunity for worship and the remembrance of Allah. Praying repeatedly throughout the day and interrupting the daily activities brings about the realization of this concept. The believer, through prayer, acquires a spiritual awareness that he takes with him throughout all of life’s endeavors.

Prayer purifies the heart and truly, through Prayer, a believer attains spiritual devotion and moral elevation. Prayer not only gives a deep connection with God, but in prayer one establishes patience, humility and sincerity. Prayer provides a means of repentance and is a restrainer from shameful and unjust deeds. This is portrayed through the following saying of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ

“If a person had a stream outside his door and he bathed in it five times a day, do you think he would have any filth left on him?” The people said, “No filth would remain on him whatsoever.” The Prophet (peace be upon him) then said, “That is like the five daily prayers: Allah wipes away the sins by them.” (From the Hadeeth collections of Al-Bukhari and Muslim.)

Praying five times a day engages the believer in constant remembrance of God and keeps him away from any unjust deeds and leads him only to deeds that will earn the pleasure of God. It is through prayer that one really finds inner peace and fulfillment. It is also a source of patience, courage, hope, confidence, inner peace, stability, equality, unity and an expression of thankfulness to God.

KINDNESS AND BEING GOOD TO ALLAH’S CREATION

The Prophet Muhammad ﷺ taught love, kindness and compassion to his people, and was seen to be the most loving, kind, and compassionate of all of them. The Quran mentions his kind and gentle behaviour in these words: “O Messenger of Allah! It is a great Mercy of God that you are gentle and kind towards them; for, had you been harsh and hard-hearted, they would all have broken away from you” (Quran 3:159).

There are many instances that show his kindness and gentleness, especially to the weak and the poor. Anas, who was his helper, said: “I served Allah’s Messenger for ten years and he never said to me, ‘Shame’ or ‘Why did you do such-and-such a thing?’ or ‘Why did you not do such-and-such a thing?'” (Bukhari, 2038).

Once he said to his wife: “O ‘A’ishah! Never turn away any needy man from your door empty-handed. 0 ‘A’ishah! Love the poor; bring them near to you and God will bring you near to Him on the Day of Resurrection”. He also went much further on to say: “Seek me among your weak ones, for you are given provision, or you are given help only by reason of the presence of your weak ones”. (Rahman, Encyclopedia of Seerah, VOL. VIII, p. 151) God Almighty is Kind, and the Prophet imitated Allah’s example in its perfection by showing kindness to his servants and all creatures without any regard for their beliefs, color or nationality. The Prophet ﷺ said: “God is kind and likes kindness in all things” (Bukhari, 6601).

His heart ached within him at the corrupt state of his fellow-Meccans and their rejection of One God. The Holy Quran testifies to it in these words: “0 Muhammad, you will, perhaps, consume yourself with grief because the people do not believe” (Quran 26:3). In Surah Kahf, we read“Well, 0 Muhammad, it may be that you will kill yourself for their sake out of sorrow if they do not believe in this Message.” (Quran 18:6). And Surah Fatir says: So let not your life be consumed in grief for their sake.” (Quran 35:8). 

He took a great interest in the welfare of all people and had great compassion for people in trouble. The Prophet Muhammad ﷺ imitated the attributes of God par excellence and translated them into practice in the highest form possible for man. Kindness is an attribute of Allah, which has no limits. It is extensive and encompasses all things and all beings without discrimination. Likewise was the kindness of the Prophet ﷺ. He extended it to all beings, both animate and inanimate and benefited all without measure. The Quranic words for the Prophet’s ﷺ kindness, ra’ufun rahirn f very intensive and comprehensive in meaning and convey the true nature and extent of the Prophet’s ﷺ kindness to people. The Prophet said: “One of the finest acts of kindness is for a man to treat his fathers’ friends in a kindly way after he has departed” (Abu dawud, 5123)

The issue of treating friends well was also extended to include relations: “He who wishes to have his provision enlarged and his term of life prolonged should treat his relatives well” (Bukhari, 5985). He emphasized on this matter because he deeply held the view that “Only kindness prolongs life, and a person is deprived of provisions for the faults he commits” (Ibn Majah).

He dwelled on the issue of treating orphans humanely as he stated that “The best house among the Muslims is one which contains an orphan who is well treated, and the worst house among the Muslims is one which contains an orphan who is badly treated” (Ibn Majah, 3679). This means that the Prophet ﷺ cautioned his followers against general maltreatment of anyone regardless of his status. By extending good treatment from friends to relatives and now to neighbours, Prophet Muhammad ﷺ was intent in making all humans interdependent as he emphasized in the following words: “All creatures are Allah’s dependants, and those dearest to God are the ones who treat His dependants kindly” (Rahman, VOL VIII, p. 154). He emphasized the kind treatment of women again and again in his speeches:

Treat women kindly, since they are your helpers; . . . you have your rights upon your wives and they have their rights upon you. Your right is that they shall not allow anyone you dislike to enter your bed or your home, and their right is that you should treat them well. (from the Farewell Sermon of the Prophet ﷺ)

Once a number of women complained to the Prophet’s wives about their ill-treatment by their husbands. On hearing of this, the Prophet ﷺ said: “Such persons among you are not good persons.” (Abu Dawud, 1834). This condemnation by the Prophet ﷺ himself was an indication that no one will be accepted before God who, while on earth, decided to be unkind to women. Another person said to the Prophet: “0 Messenger of Allah! My relatives are such that although I cooperate with them, they cut me off; I am kind to them but they ill treat me.” The Prophet ﷺ said this in reply: “So long as you continue as you are, God will always help you and He will protect you against their mischief” (Muslim, 4640). This was not only a way of bringing comfort to the mind of the worried person but one of the communicative techniques of the Prophet ﷺ to assure who ever found himself in that situation to look up to God to be consoled and protected. So it was pointless to preach vengeance to this kind of people suffering from this similar fate. Indeed, Prophet Muhammad ﷺ was nothing short of a competent counsellor.

He was always counselling people to be goodhearted regardless of their sex, age or gender. Once Asma bint Abu Bakr’s mother, who was still an unbeliever, came to see her in Madinah. She told this to the Prophet ﷺ and said: “My mother has come to see me and she is expecting something from me. May I oblige her?” The Prophet ﷺ said: “Yes, be kind to your mother” (Muslim, 2195). This attitude of the Prophet was equally extended to Zainab as-Saqafia, the wife of Abdullah ibn Mas’ud and an Ansari woman. She went to see the Prophet ﷺ and to inquire whether it would be a charity if they spent something on their husbands and on the orphans under their care. The Prophet ﷺ said: “They will get a two-fold reward, one for kindness towards their relatives and the other for charity” (Bukhari, 1466).

There are many Hadith concerning his kindness to animals, birds and insects: “God prescribed kindness towards everything; so when you slaughter any animal, slaughter it well; when you sacrifice, make your sacrifice good. And let everyone sharpen his weapon and make it easy for his sacrificed animal” (Muslim, 5055). He made this kind of statement to demonstrate his love for both humans and animals. In essence, Prophet Muhammad ﷺ was equally showing his followers that he too is feels pain.

FAIRNESS

Allah, the Wise, has said:

كُونُوا قَوَّامِينَ لِله شُهَداَءَ بِالْقِسطِ

(Be upright for Allah, bearers of witness with justice.)

Imam Ali (a.s.) has said:

مَنْ يُنْصِفُ مِنْ نَفْسِهِ لَمْ يَزِدهُ اللهُ إلاَّ عِزًّا

(One, who exhibits fairness on his part, Allah shall increase him in glory.)

A person’s faith does not become perfect until he observes fairness with respect to himself and others. In exchange, God shall increase his honour and glory.

Man, by nature, prefers his own self and loves everything that is associated with him. He also possesses a dislike for everything bad and evil. Thus, if he helps someone in need, he would be commended by one and all. Similarly, (justice demands that) if he does not desire anything bad and evil for himself, he should not desire it for the others too.

This also holds true when mediating between two warring parties; never should he side unfairly with one, against the other, even if the outcome results in his own detriment.

An Arab approached the Holy Prophet ﷺ when he was about to embark upon a military expedition.

Seizing the reins of the Prophet’scamel, he said, “O’ Prophet of Allah! Inform me of a deed that would earn me Paradise.”

“Conduct yourself with people in the same manner as you would want them to behave towards you and refrain from doing to them what you would not want them to do to you,” advised the ﷺ and then added, “Let go of the reins (for I have to The Equity of Iman Ali (The Ruler of the Muslims known as Amirul Mu’mineen meaning. The leader of the believers)

Shu’bi narrates:

Like the other youths, I entered the vast open ground of Kufah, where I witnessed Amirul Mu’mineen (a.s.) standing beside two containers which were filled with gold and silver coins. He had a small whip in his hand. A huge crowd had gathered around him and he kept them back by means of his whip, to prevent them from hampering the distribution of the money.

The Imam (a.s.) began distributing the money amongst the people until nothing remained for himself and he returned home empty-handed.

I returned home and said to my father, “I witnessed a very strange act today but I fail to comprehend if this person’s action was good or bad because he never retained anything for himself!”

My father inquired, “Who was the person?”

“Amirul Mu’mineen (a.s.),” I replied and then went on to narrate what had transpired earlier. Upon hearing Ali’s (a.s.) fairness in distributing the money, my father began to weep and said to me, “My son, you have witnessed the most excellent person from amongst the people.”

The Fairness of Abu Dharr

On the way towards the battle of Tabuk, Abu Dharr fell behind the army because he was mounted on a slow animal. When the others realized this, they notified the Holy Prophet ﷺ, who said:

“If he possesses goodness in him, God shall make him reach you.”

Meanwhile, Abu Dharr, disappointed with his animal, dismounted and proceeded on foot. The Holy Prophet ﷺ found a convenient place and had decided to pitch the tents, when one of the Muslims shouted that there was someone in the distance approaching them.

The Holy Prophet ﷺ prayed:

O’ Lord! May it be Abu Dharr!

The others informed him that it was indeed Abu Dharr. The Prophet supplicated:

May Allah forgive Abu Dharr! He travels alone, shall die alone and shall be resurrected alone. He then asked the people to provide Abu Dharr with some water, as he appeared to be thirsty.

But when Abu Dharr arrived in his presence, the Prophet ﷺ observed that he had a container of water in his possession, and so asked him, “Abu Dharr! You had water with you and yet you remained thirsty?”

“Yes! O’ Prophet of Allah! May my parents be sacrificed for you! On the way, I was overcome by thirst. I reached a place where there was some water. Tasting it, I found it to be cold and delicious and so said to myself: (It is not fair) if I drink this water before the Holy Prophet ﷺ,” replied Abu Dharr.

Hearing this, the Holy Prophet ﷺ said, “O’ Abu Dharr! May Allah forgive your sins! You shall lead your life in solitude, die as a stranger, away from home, and enter Paradise alone.”

A’di Ibn Haatim

A’di, the son of the well-known Haatim Taai, was one of the sincere and loyal companions of Amirul Mu’mineen (a.s.). From the year 10 A.H. when he accepted Islam, A’di had always remained in the service of the Imam (a.s.), and had fought alongside him in the battles of Jamal, Siffeen and Nahrawaan. In the battle of Jamal he sustained an injury to one of his eyes as a result of which he lost his vision.

Once he came to Mua’wiyah for some purpose. Mua’wiyah asked him why he had not brought his sons with him.

“They were killed while fighting alongside Amirul Mu’mineen (a.s.),” he replied.

“Ali has not been just to you, for he sent your sons to be killed while he has kept his own sons alive!” said Mua’wiyah.

A’di retorted, “(On the contrary) I have not done justice to Ali for he has been killed, whereas I am still alive. O’ Mua’wiyah! Our rage towards you still smoulders in our hearts. Do know that (the pain of) having our throats slit or the agony of death is easier for us to bear than hearing bad comments about Ali (a.s.).”

GENEROCITY

Prophet ﷺ was generous and liberal with his greatest enemies.

He was generous and liberal with even his greatest enemies, even with the people of Mecca, who were the ones who fought him for many years…

William Muir
Scottish orientalist

Prophet Muhammed ﷺ did not deny anything to anyone who asked him!!

An example of his great generosity is that Prophet Muhammed ﷺ used to give much more at times when it is preferred to do many good deeds, like during the month of Ramadan. Abdullah ibn Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) said,

The Prophet ﷺ was the most generous of all the people, and he was as generous as he could be in Ramadan… the Messenger of Allah Muhammad ﷺ was more generous than the fast wind related in Al-Bukhari and Muslim.

One day, a lady gave Messenger of Allah ﷺ a woven cloak. She said, “Oh Prophet ﷺ, this is for you to wear.” Messenger of Allah ﷺ took it, as he direly needed it, and put it on. One of his Companions saw it on the Prophet, so he said, “Oh Messenger of Allah, how nice that is! Give it to me.” The Messenger of Allah ﷺ immediately fulfilled the man’s request and gave it to him, although he greatly needed it and the man knew this!!

When Messenger of Allah ﷺ stood up to lead the Companions in prayer, they said [to the man],

’The man was wrong [concerning what he did]! The Prophet ﷺ took it (the cloak) as he really needed it. Then the man asked for it, and he knew that the Prophet ﷺ does not turn anyone away empty-handed.’” And this is what the Messenger of Allah Muhammad ﷺ was known for. Consequently, the man said, ‘“I hoped to receive blessings from it as the Prophet ﷺ had worn it; and I hope I will be shrouded in it when I die! related by Al-Bukhari.

Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her) described the Prophet, saying, “His manners were those [mentioned] in the Quran.” And he was one of those who Allah described as:

And prefer them to themselves, even if they themselves are needy Surah Al-Hashr: 9.

There are many different ways one can be generous. Being generous with money is just one way. State other ways one can be generous?

Proofs of the Messenger ﷺ of Allah’s generosity are more than one can count. Those near and far have born witness to this. The following is an example of what they have stated:

He gives like one who does not fear poverty

Truly, the Messenger of Allah ﷺ reached the highest and most honourable level from among those who are generous; he used to be very lavish when he gave. An Arab expressed this when he went to the Messenger of Allah ﷺ and saw a herd of sheep that filled a whole valley. Being avaricious of the Messenger of Allah’s generosity, he asked the Messenger of ﷺ to give him all [the sheep] that were in the valley. The Messenger of Allah ﷺ gave them all to him. The man returned to his people with the good news, saying,

My people, enter Islam, as Muhammed gives like one who does not fear poverty. related by Muslim

Anas (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated that Messenger of Allah ﷺ said,

A man may enter Islam only for worldly benefits, but after he had entered Islam it would become more beloved to him than the world and everything in it. related by Muslim.

Such incidents left a great impact on the Arabs who used to come to the Messenger of Allah ﷺ just to return with sheep or camels, and dinars or dirhams, and his ﷺ response quickly made them willing to accept Islam and become steadfast in it. In such a way, the Messenger of Allah’s generosity was a reason for many people entering Islam, as he ﷺ used to give like one who did not fear poverty…Truly, the Messenger of Allah ﷺ reached the most perfect level any human can reach with regards loving to be generous. The Messenger of Allah ﷺ used to give like one who did not think he might become poor or did not fear poverty as he ﷺ was sure that Allah’s blessings on mankind are great, and the Messenger of Allah ﷺ truly believed that He (Glorified is He) is the One Who provides as He is the Lord of abounding grace.

Is it correct to use wealth and to be generous to encourage people to enter Islam? What is the wisdom in this?

The most generous person when giving to others

Ali ibn Abu Talib (may Alah have mercy on him) described the Messenger of Allah ﷺ saying,

The Messenger of Allah was the most generous person when giving to others, the most honourable one to live with, and whoever mixed with him and so came to know him, loved him”

Jabir ibn Abdullah (may Allah be pleased with him) said about him,

The Prophet ﷺ was not asked for anything at all and to which he replied by saying, ‘No’ related by At-Tirmidhi.

Money is distributed in the mosque!!

One of the incidents that indicate the generosity of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) is related in the hadith narrated by Anas ibn Malik (may Allah be pleased with him).

The ﷺ received money from Bahrain.” So he said, ‘“Spread it out in the mosque!’” It was the largest amount of money the Messenger of Allah ﷺ had ever received. The Messenger of Allah ﷺ then left to pray and did not look at the money. When the prayer was finished, he went to sit next to the money. There was no one he ﷺ but he gave him from the money. And The Messenger of Allah Muhammad ﷺ did not stand up until there was no dirham left

(i.e., he had given all of it away, and not even one dirham was left for himself)

related by Al-Bukhari.

The poet was truthful when he said,

You see him jubilant when you go to meet him,

As though you will actually give him what you intend to ask from him!

What is the difference between the Messenger of Allah ﷺ and other leaders and kings with regards to dealing with the booty of war and distributing it among his people?

The Messenger of encouraged his Companions to be generous

The Messenger of Allah ﷺ always encouraged his Companions to spend and be generous. Concerning this, the Messenger of Allah Muhammad ﷺ told his Companions and those after them from his nation, teaching them good manners:

There is no day that rises on a slave but there are two angels that come to him. One of them says, ‘Oh Allah, recompense those who spend [in Allah’s way]’ And the other one says, Oh Allah, ruin those who do not spend’ related by Al-Bukhari.

The Prophet’s noble manners

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said,

‘Whoever believes in Allah and the Last Day, should be generous to his guests by giving them their reward.’ The Companions said, ‘And what is his reward, Oh Messenger of Allah?’ He replied, ‘[To be entertained] a day and its night [with high quality food], and three days with ordinary food. If he stays longer, what he is provided is considered a charitable gift’ related by Muslim.

When does generosity become a type of waste, loss and extravagance?

The life of Messenger of Allah ﷺ is like a mirror that reflects hospitality and generosity

The life of Muhammed is like a mirror in front of us that reflects towards us a wise mind, hospitality and generosity…and all other essential humane manners.

Lord Headley
British politician and author

Money is divided even if it equalled the amount of trees on the plain of Tihamah!!

The Messenger of Allah ﷺ often gave gifts to soften the hearts of the new Muslims. In the battle of Hunain, he (peace be upon him) gave Ayaneh ibn Haseen, Al Aqra ibn Habis, Abbas ibn Mirdas, Abu Sufyan ibn Harb and Safwan ibn Umayya (may Allah be pleased with them), each one of them, a large number of camels. When the Messenger of Allah ﷺ returned from this battle, some Arabs followed him to ask him [for some of the booty], so the Messenger of ﷺ said,

Are you scared I will be miserly?! If there were spoils equal to the number of these trees,

I would have divided them among you, and you will not have found me to be miserly, cowardly or a liar. related by Ahmed.

The Messenger of Allah ﷺ did not keep this wealth to himself, but he distributed it among his Companions. The Messenger of Allah ﷺ knew very well that wealth was only a means and not the main aim, so he used to use it to soften the hearts of the leaders of Mecca and the different Arab tribes. In such a way his generosity was one of the reasons Islam became strong in the people’s hearts. As a result of his great generosity and modesty, he never said, “No,” at all to anyone who asked; and no one who asked was ever disappointed.

Indeed, we are in need these days of this praiseworthy characteristic, generosity, in our dealings with others. By Allah, the poet was wise when he said,

If you are good to people, you can win their hearts.

Good actions make the one who you treat well like your slave who does anything you want

His generosity was not limited to wealth alone. In fact, the Messenger of Allah ﷺ was generous with knowledge in how he taught the people, and with his influential position when interceding for others. He was also generous by using kind words and smiling at the people, and generous when dealing with them. And there were many other situations in which his generosity was clear.

WOMAN’S RIGHTS IN ISLAM

At the very beginning of Muhammad’s ﷺ  prophet wood the first person to accept Islam was the Prophets ﷺ wife Khadija. Not counting the Prophet ﷺ, the first Muslim was a women. The Prophet ﷺ also breathed his last breath while laying with his head in his wife’s, Aisha lap. So, he started his ﷺ prophet wood with his first wife becoming the first Muslim and his life ended in the lap of his wife Aisha. This is how Allah has granted honour to the two most beloved women of the Prophet ﷺ.  Aisha contributed more than 2000 Hadith and is known as the mother of the believers. Hence, woman is given the highest honour in Islam.

Importance of a Mother

God gives a mother in Islam the highest honour. God promised any person that is good and dutiful to his parents, more so to his/her mother, is granted paradise.

Bahz b. Hakim, on his father’s authority, said that his grandfather told him that he had asked Allah’s Messenger ﷺ to whom he should show kindness and that the Prophet ﷺ had replied: “Your mother.” He asked who came next and he replied: “Your mother.” He asked who came next and he replied for the third time: “Your mother.” He again asked who came next and he replied: “Your father, then your relatives in order of relationship” (Abu dawud, 5120).

A man once consulted the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ about taking part in a military campaign. The Prophet ﷺ asked the man if his mother was still alive. When told that she was alive, the Prophet ﷺ said: “(Then) stay with her, for Paradise is at her feet”. (Al-Tirmidhi)

On another occasion, the Prophet ﷺ said: “God has forbidden for you to be undutiful to your mothers.” (Sahigh Al-Bukhari)

Dignity of a Woman

Islam is the only religion that gives a woman dignity. We see in the Western society how woman are treated like sexual objects in advertising campaigns to entice men to buy things. Woman are made to stand almost naked next to a new car. They have to pose half naked in a bikini in boxing and wrestling matches and naked and half naked woman feature in 90% of Hollywood movies. When men look at these woman they are viewed only as a sexual attractions which is exactly the purpose.

In Islam Allah instructs woman to cover themselves with a cloak so that they do not reveal the shape of their bodies and to cover the hair. Westerners view this as Muslim women not having women rights and being oppressed. Muslim women on the other hand cover themselves willingly as they know Allah has granted them dignity and they obey Allah knowing that HE is protecting them from evil.   

The shape and curves of a woman wearing tight garments and beautiful hair are attractions to a man. If a woman has to resort to these tactics to attract the attention of a man then what type of man will she attract? These woman intention is to attract a man using sexual advances. We see young girls dressing half naked, short skirts and short pants with half the buttocks exposed and now they ware tights that is transparent revealing even more. It is no wonder that every minute a woman is raped.

When a man seas a woman who is covered from neck to ankle with a loosely fitted garment and hair covered there is no sexual advance from the woman. This woman’s dress tells the man that she is not a sexual object, it tells him that she demands respect and she is a woman of integrity and a woman who is in obedience to her Lord. Even in Catholism we see nuns dressed the same way and they are respected.

There is no compulsion for a woman to dress this way in Islam but if she does, she has everything to gain and will maintain her dignity and honour and she will be in obedience to Allah’s command. For this there is great reward from Allah.

Many young ladies today say they want to be free to dress the way they like. No one is forcing them as there is no compulsion on them but is it worth it to sacrifice your soul, your respect, your dignity and honour so that men can view you as a sexual object and disrespect you? Islam offers you the highest place in paradise and the devil offers you the lowest place in hell.

Gender Equality

Gender equality is part of Islam jurisprudence and fundamental teachings. Numerous Verses of the Qur’an and Prophetic Traditions enjoin gender equality which categorically proves that gender inequality is not faith-based.

“O mankind! Fear your Lord Who (initiated) your creation from a single soul, then from it created its mate, and from these two spread (the creation of) countless men and women.” (Qur’an, 4:1)

This Verse clearly expounds that man or woman are created from a single entity and are basically equal genders. As a gender, one is not superior to the other.

“And according to usage, women too have rights over men similar to the rights of men over women.” (Qur’an, 2:228)

This Verse denotes that rights enjoyed by men are the duties of the women and the duties of men are the rights of women. This implies a similitude between both the genders. There is no right conferred on man that woman may be deprived of because she is a woman.

“Men, however, have an advantage over them.” (Qur’an, 2:228)

Here the Qur’an refers to man’s superiority by virtue of his responsibility of protection and maintenance of woman and fulfilment of their rights. Nature has made him stronger, more responsible and tolerant with reference to mundane matters of life. So man is held superior to woman in the grade of responsibility.

Social and societal structure of Islam is based on family system which can be secure if made subservient to natural discipline:

“Men are guardians and managers over women.” (Qur’an, 4:34)

The Arabic word ‘qawwam’ used in this Verse denotes support, protection and supervision according to the Arabic usage. The relation between rights and duties in Islam is reciprocal and cannot be compartmentalized. However, man has been made more responsible in connection with the performance of social and economic obligations. Maintenance of woman is the basic responsibility of man in the Islamic Law. At no place has this responsibility been placed on woman. Woman has been freed of the burden of social, political and economic responsibilities. But they have been given more freedom than men under certain rules and regulations and the opportunities for women to capitalize on them are more than those enjoyed by men. For example on economic matters the Qur’an says:

“Men will have a share of what they earn, and women will have a share of what they earn.” (Qur’an, 4:32)

For men is what they earn and for women is what they earn. But woman has not been burdened with the financial responsibilities of family. It has squarely been placed on the shoulders of man; he is responsible to ensure the fulfilment of the rights of woman even though she may be earning herself. It is not her responsibility to bear the financial burden of a family. Whatever she earns is her personal income to which man cannot stake any claim legally in Islam. However, it will be an act of benevolence on part of a woman if both of them to spend on the wellbeing of their children out of their volition. But whether she earns or not she has been given the guarantee of complete economic maintenance; man is responsible for that.

Men and women enjoy equal rights in all walks of life according to teachings of Islam. Islam regards woman a complete legal personality. Like man it has given woman the right to choose the head of the state, participate in the legislative work and vote in the performance of state matters. Women have been heads of states in Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Turkey.

We can gauge its human, social, political and civilizational significance by reviewing the history of the recognition of this right of woman at international level. It has taken the contemporary society centuries to acknowledge the sanctity of vote, fighting the plagues of apartheid and racial discrimination.

There is no discrimination between men and women in opportunities at different levels. Both enjoy equal opportunities in all walks of life.

In the absence of gender equality a society would not only face deprivation, economic inequality and other social evils but would also be unable to tread the path of life with a win-win mind-set. As for its relation to religion, Islam enjoins to promote gender equality in all walks of life, be it economic, social, worldly or religious.

FREEDOM TO WORK

Islam regards women as one of the two pillars of the society and has given them various responsibilities. Women cannot and must not be crippled members or useless constituents of the society. Islam regards work as an obligation and a superior form of worship and warns its supporters to avoid idleness, vanity, and retirement from work. There are many Hadith regarding this issue, some of which are mentioned below.

The Messenger of Allah ﷺ has stated:

قال رسول الله (ص): «العبادةُ سَبْعُونَ جزءً أفضلها طَلَبُ الحَلال.

“Worship has seventy elements; the noblest of which is endeavouring to gain legitimate income.”

According to Islam, working is not a right but a duty and men and women are no different in this regard. Women must also perform their social duties and they are free in choosing their occupation.

Consequently, Islam advises that men not allow women to perform laborious work. Amir al-Mu’minin said to his son Imam Hassan (‘a):

في رسالة أميرالمؤمنين إلى الحسن (ع) قال: «لا تملك المرأة من الأمر ما يجاوز نفسها؛ فإنّ ذلك أنعم بحالها، و أرخى لبالها، و أدوم لجمالها؛ فإنّ المرأة ريحانة و ليست بقهرمانة.»

“Do not tolerate that women do things beyond their abilities because this is more suitable for their status, it calms their hearts, and preserves their beauty; surely women are like fragrant flowers and not warriors.”

Freedom in Proprietorship

Islam respects the ownership of both women and men. A woman may gain and become owner of properties and wealth through industry, commerce, dower, gifts, working as a staff member, or any other legitimate method. She may gain profit from these methods and no one has the right to appropriate her possessions without her consent, whether they be her father, mother, husband, or children. The Quran declares:

وَ لاَ تَتَمَنَّوْاْ مَا فَضَّلَ اللّهُ بِهِ بَعْضَكُمْ عَلَى بَعْضٍ لِّلرِّجَالِ نَصِيبٌ مِّمَّا اكْتَسَبُواْ وَ لِلنِّسَاء نَصِيبٌ مِّمَّا اكْتَسَبْنَ وَ اسْأَلُواْ اللّهَ مِن فَضْلِهِ إِنَّ اللّهَ كَانَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمًا

“Do not covet that by which Allah has elevated some of you over others. To men is allotted what they earn and to women is allotted what they earn. So ask Allah of His bounty. Surely Allah has absolute knowledge of all things.”

 Freedom To Marry

Like men, women are completely free in marriage and choosing their spouse. A mature woman may not be married without her consent and such a marriage is void. No one has the right to force a woman to marry or to choose a specific husband for her, even one’s father, mother, sibling, or grandparents. Imam Sadiq (‘a) has stated:

منصور بن حازم، عن أبي عبدالله (ع) قال: «تستأمر البكر و غيرها ولا تنكح إلّا بأمرها.

“Women must be asked permission for their marriage, virgin or otherwise, and marriage is not correct without the woman’s behest.”

Freedom in Seeking Knowledge

Unmarried women may freely endeavour to acquire knowledge and no one has the right to prevent them from learning. However, a married woman must observe the rights of her spouse and children and must confer with her husband on this issue in order to reach a consensus.

The conditions surrounding this issue are similar to those of freedom in work. Of course, this refers to studying outside the home at educational facilities such as a university; studying at home in one’s leisure time is not detrimental to familial life.

Freedom in Residence Selection

Single women are at liberty to choose a home for themselves, though wedded women must adhere to their husband’s place of residence. Providing a house is up to men and it is their prerogative.

Naturally, the home must be within the dignity of the family, consistent with the husband’s capital, and such that the peace and welfare of the family is assured. If they are living in a shared home (with other relatives) and the woman requests a private home, if it is in his power the man must acquiesce. In addition, if their house is small or if they are under pressure for some reason and the woman asks for a new residence the man must accept if he is able. These are examples of kind association [mu‘ashirat bi ma‘ruf] that God enjoins in the Quran:

…وَ عَاشِرُوهُنَّ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ…

“And consort with your wives in kindness.”

It is also stated in the Quran as follows:

…وَ لَا تُضَارُّوهُنَّ لِتُضَيِّقُوا عَلَيْهِنَّ…

“And harass them not, so as to straighten life for them.”

Even though choosing a home is the man’s prerogative, the woman may stipulate as an annex to the marriage contract that she select a dwelling place or request that she be given dwelling rights. If the man accepts the annex, he must abide by his wife’s desires in this matter and if he violates her request, he is a sinner.

CLEANLINESS IN ISLAM

Islam gives great importance to cleanliness and has made it the indispensable condition and key to some kinds of worshipping.

While some nations abandoned self-care and cleanliness to attain high spirituality, Islam made it obligatory to clean oneself in preparation for daily prayers.

Caring for one’s hygiene is not only deemed a good habit in Islam but also rendered into rituals that constitute part of the faith itself.

As mentioned above, a Muslim is required to be clean when performing daily Prayers, which includes properly cleansing oneself after using the toilet and practicing ablution (the washing of one’s private parts before getting up from the toilet). Muslims men are not allowed to stand when urinating since splashing may result in urine contamination ones clothing. When one is finished in the toilet it is encouraged to perform Wudu (further ablution for the washing of hands, mouth, nose, arms, ears, neck and the feet.

The Wudu must be performed before reading Quran or performing Salah (the ritual prayer performed 5 times per day)

In some cases, a full body bath is obligatory such as after spouses’ intimacy.

Moreover, the great encouragement for cleaning teeth as shown in the hadiths below reveals to which extent Islam was careful even for the details of personal hygiene.

Cleanliness also contributes to the wellbeing of the human both in this world and in the hereafter. A healthy strong believer is better in the sight of Allah than a weak one as the former is more qualified to fulfil the objectives of Islam and serve humanity.

Cleanliness also prevents diseases. It is a common fact that none- Muslims contract many more disease resulting from uncleanliness and in many cases disease around the gentile area as non-Muslims do not wash the area afar using the toilet or engaging in intercourse.  

This collection of hadiths presents only some examples of Islam’s stance on health and hygiene:

The Prophet ﷺ states the following in a hadith:

Five practices are of the fitrah (natural disposition): circumcision, shaving the pubic region, clipping the nails and cutting the moustaches short.” (Al-Bukhari and Muslim)

Keeping the pubic area and armpits clean shaven keeps disease away and makes one clean in the sight of Allah

“The key to the prayer (salah) is cleanliness, its beginning is takbir (saying Allahu Akbar)  and its ending is salam (salutation).” (Abu Dawud, Taharah, 31: Tirmidhi, Taharah, 39

Cleanliness is the precondition of some sorts of worshipping; it is also the indispensable condition of health and hygiene. Besides, it makes the sustenance increase. The following is stated in a hadith:

“Keep cleaning so that your sustenance will increase…”.

Some hadiths and verses showing how much importance Islam gives to cleanliness are as follows:

“Islam is clean. Therefore, you should keep yourselves clean, too. Only the clean people can enter Paradise.”  (Hadith)

“Cleanliness is the half of belief.” (Hadith)

“Cleanliness is from belief (its perfection and light).”  (Hadith)

“For Allah loves those who turn to Him constantly and He loves those who keep themselves pure and clean…” (Quran 2:222).

“Allah doth not wish to place you in a difficulty, but to make you clean, and to complete His favour to you, that ye may be grateful.” (Quran 5:6).

“He caused rain to descend on you from heaven, to clean you therewith…” (Quran 8:11).

Abu Dharr (may Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said:

Whoever takes a bath on a Friday and does it well, and purifies himself and does it well, and puts on his best clothes, and puts on whatever Allah decrees for him of the perfume of his family, then comes to the mosque and does not engage in idle talk or separate (pushing between) two people; he will be forgiven for (his sins) between that day and the previous Friday.” (Ibn Majah and authenticated by Al-Albani)

It is obligatory for a Muslim to perform Ghusal (obligatory bath) on a Friday before attending the Friday prayer at the Mosque.

It will be wrong to reduce cleanliness to body cleanliness only. The cleanliness of the heart, honesty and high ethics are as important as body cleanliness. As a matter of fact, the worshipping of a person whose intention is not clean will not be sincere; therefore, it will not be accepted by Allah.

Therefore, the cleanliness of the heart and the cleanliness of the body should come together in a Muslim; it should be known that if both of them are clean, a person will become a mature Muslim.

The cleanliness of the heart and the body is an important essential of Islam. As a matter of fact, the Prophet pointed to those two issues with the following hadith:

“Islam was built on the foundation of cleanliness.”

Another hadith that reminds us the principle of cleanliness is as follows: “Allah is clean; He loves clean people.”

Abu Hurairah (may Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said:

EESA (AS) (JESUS CHRIST) IN ISLAM

Eesa (AS) is one of the greatest messengers of Allah in Islam. Eesa (AS) is loved dearly by all Muslims as a messenger of Allah. Muslims has to believe in all the prophets and messengers of Allah as part of the faith. In so doing a Muslim has to put peace and blessings on all the messengers when their name is mentioned. This is done by adding the abbreviation AS or PBUH (Alayhi Salaam) meaning peace be upon him. The real name of Jesus (AS) is not Jesus which was translated many times from Hebrew, then to Greek, then to Latin. The real name of Jesus is Eesa as given by Allah. Isa, also spelled Eisa or Eesa, is the Arabic name for the prophet Jesus (AS), son of Mary. Isa is not an Arabic name, rather, it is ancient Hebrew and means “God is salvation”. Christians should not mistake this meaning stating this is proof that Jesus (AS) is God which is not the case at all. Since there is salvation in the teachings of Eesa (AS) this does not mean that is God. This subject will be covered in more detail when we discuss Christianity.

Eesa (AS) is mentioned 25 times in the Quran but the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ is only mentioned 4 times by name in the Quran. Mary, the mother of Eesa (AS) is mentioned 70 times in the Quran and a whole chapter is dedicated to her. Many Christians say that the Jesus in Islam is not the same as the Jesus in Christianity as the Christians has made the claim that Jesus is God. This is far from the truth and Christians makes these claims out of ignorance and by those who do not have knowledge. Muslims also believe that Eesa is the Messiah, the Christ.

Our beliefs concerning the Messiah ‘Eesa ibn Maryam (Jesus the son of Mary – peace be upon him) are those indicated by the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of our Messenger Muhammad ﷺ.

We believe that ‘Eesa (AS) was one of the slaves of Allah, and one of His noble Messengers. Allah sent him to the Children of Israel to call them to believe in Allah alone and worship Him alone. 

Allah says (interpretation of the meaning): 

“And (remember) when ‘Eesa (Jesus), son of Maryam (Mary), said: ‘O Children of Israel! I am the Messenger of Allah unto you, confirming the Tawraat [(Torah) which came] before me, and giving glad tidings of a Messenger to come after me, whose name shall be Ahmad.’ But when he (Ahmad, i.e. Muhammad) came to them with clear proofs, they said: ‘This is plain magic’” (Quran 61:6) 

“But the Messiah [‘Eesa (Jesus)] said: ‘O Children of Israel! Worship Allah, my Lord and your Lord.’ Verily, whosoever sets up partners (in worship) with Allah, then Alaah has forbidden Paradise to him, and the Fire will be his abode. And for the Zaalimoon (polytheists and wrongdoers) there are no helpers” (Quran 5:72)

Allah states that Eesa is a messenger of Allah and that Allah has no partners (meaning he has no son or any that is equil to Him). Who ever sets up partners with Allah will never see paradise and will be of the inhabitants of the fire.

Allah says: 

“Surely, they have disbelieved who say: ‘Allah is the Messiah [‘Eesa (Jesus)], son of Maryam (Mary).’” (Quran 5:72) 

“And the Jews say: ‘Uzair (Ezra) is the son of Allah, and the Christians say: Messiah is the son of Alaah. That is their saying with their mouths, resembling the saying of those who disbelieved aforetime. Allaah’s Curse be on them, how they are deluded away from the truth!” (Quran 9:30)

The first words that ‘Eesa spoke when Allah caused him to speak when he was in the cradle were: 

“He [‘Eesa (Jesus)] said: ‘Verily, I am a slave of Allah, He has given me the Scripture and made me a Prophet’” (Quran19:30)

Muslims believe that Allah supported him with miracles that proved he was speaking the truth. 

Allah says: 

“(Remember) when Allah will say (on the Day of Resurrection). ‘O ‘Eesa (Jesus), son of Maryam (Mary)! Remember My Favour to you and to your mother when I supported you with Rooh‑ul‑Qudus [Jibreel (Gabriel)] so that you spoke to the people in the cradle and in maturity; and when I taught you writing, Al‑Hikmah (the power of understanding), the Tawraat (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel); and when you made out of the clay, a figure like that of a bird, by My Permission, and you breathed into it, and it became a bird by My Permission, and you healed those born blind, and the lepers by My Permission, and when you brought forth the dead by My Permission; and when I restrained the Children of Israel from you (when they resolved to kill you) as you came unto them with clear proofs, and the disbelievers among them said: This is nothing but evident magic’” (Quran 5:110)

We believe that ‘Eesa was born from the Virgin Mary with no father, and that is not impossible for Allaah Who, when He wills a thing, says “Be!” and it is. 

Allah says (interpretation of the meaning): 

“Verily, the likeness of ‘Eesa (Jesus) before Allah is the likeness of Adam. He created him from dust, then (He) said to him: ‘Be!’ — and he was” (Quran 3:59) 

“(Remember) when the angels said: ‘O Maryam (Mary)! Verily, Allah gives you the glad tidings of a Word [‘Be!’ — and he was! i.e. ‘Eesa (Jesus) the son of Maryam (Mary)] from Him, his name will be the Messiah ‘Eesa (Jesus), the son of Maryam (Mary), held in honour in this world and in the Hereafter, and will be one of those who are near to Allah.”

He will speak to the people, in the cradle and in manhood, and he will be one of the righteous.’

She said: ‘O my Lord! How shall I have a son when no man has touched me.’ He said: ‘So (it will be) for Allah creates what He wills. When He has decreed something, He says to it only: “Be!” and it is’” (Quran 3:45-47)

Muslims believe that he permitted to the Jews some of the things that had been forbidden to them.  

Allah tells us that ‘Eesa said to the Children of Israel: 

“And I have come confirming that which was before me of the Tawraat (Torah), and to make lawful to you part of what was forbidden to you, and I have come to you with a proof from your Lord. So fear Allah and obey me” (Quran 3:50)

Muslims believe that he did not die and his enemies the Jews did not kill him, rather Allah saved him from them and raised him up to heaven alive. 

Allah says: 

“And because of their (Jews) disbelief and uttering against Maryam (Mary) a grave false charge (that she has committed illegal sexual intercourse);

And because of their saying (in boast), ‘We killed Messiah ‘Eesa (Jesus), son of Maryam (Mary), the Messenger of Allah,’ — but they killed him not, nor crucified him, but it appeared so to them the resemblance of ‘Eesa (Jesus) was put over another man (and they killed that man)], and those who differ therein are full of doubts. They have no (certain) knowledge, they follow nothing but conjecture. For surely; they killed him not [i.e. ‘Eesa (Jesus), son of Maryam (Mary)]:

But Allah raised him [‘Eesa (Jesus)] up (with his body and soul) unto Himself (and he is in the heavens). And Allah is Ever All‑Powerful, All‑Wise” (Quran 4:156-158)

Muslims believe that he told his followers of the coming of our Prophet Muhammad ﷺ.

Allah says: 

“And (remember) when ‘Eesa (Jesus), son of Maryam (Mary), said: ‘O Children of Israel! I am the Messenger of Allah unto you, confirming the Tawraat [(Torah) which came] before me, and giving glad tidings of a Messenger to come after me, whose name shall be Ahmad.’ But when he (Ahmad, i.e. Muhammad) came to them with clear proofs, they said: ‘This is plain magic’” (Quran 61:6)

Muslims believe that Eesa (AS) will come back down at the end of time, and will disprove the claim of his enemies the Jews that they killed him, and will disprove the claim of the Christians that he is God or the son of God, and he will not accept anything from them but Islam.

Al-Bukhaari (2222) and Muslim (155) narrated that Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “By the One in Whose hand is my soul, soon the son of Maryam will descend among you [according to another report: the Hour will not begin until the son of Maryam descends among you] as a just judge. He will break the cross, kill the pigs and abolish the jizyah, and money will become abundant until no one will accept it.”  

“Soon” means it will inevitably happen quickly. 

“will descend among you” means among this ummah. 

“A just judge” means that he will come down and rule according to this sharee’ah (divine law), and that this sharee’ah will remain and not be abrogated, rather ‘Eesa will be one of the rulers of this ummah. 

“He will break the cross and kill the pigs” means he will declare as false the religion of the Christians by breaking the cross in a real sense and proving false the Christians’ claims and veneration of the cross.  

“and he will abolish the jizyah (taxes)”: 

al-Nawawi said: 

The correct view concerning this is that he will not accept it, and he will not accept anything from the kaafirs disbelievers but Islam. If any of them offer the jizyah that will not make him stop fighting them. Rather he will not accept anything but Islam or death. This is the view of Imam Abu Sulaymaan al-Khattaabi and other scholars (may Allah have mercy on them). 

End quote. 

“Money will become abundant” – the reason for this abundance will be the descent of blessings and the spread of goodness because of justice and the absence of oppression or wrongdoing. At that time the earth will bring forth its treasures, and desire to keep money will decrease because they will know that that Hour is at hand. 

Then he will die and the Muslims will offer the funeral prayer for him and bury him. 

Ahmad (9349) narrated from Abu Hurayrah that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “I am the closest of people to ‘Eesa ibn Maryam because there was no Prophet between him and me…” Then he mentioned his descent at the end of time. Then he said: “And he will remain for as long as Allah wills he should remain, then he will die and the Muslims will offer the funeral prayer for him and bury him.” Classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in al-Silsilah al-Saheehah (2182).  

We believe that he will disavow himself on the Day of Resurrection of the claims that he was a god. 

Allah says: 

“And (remember) when Allaah will say (on the Day of Resurrection): ‘O ‘Eesa (Jesus), son of Maryam (Mary)! Did you say unto men: Worship me and my mother as two gods besides Allah?’  He will say: ‘Glory be to You! It was not for me to say what I had no right (to say). Had I said such a thing, You would surely have known it. You know what is in my inner‑self though I do not know what is in Yours; truly, You, only You, are the All‑Knower of all that is hidden (and unseen).

Never did I say to them aught except what You (Allah) did command me to say: Worship Allah, my Lord and your Lord. And I was a witness over them while I dwelt amongst them, but when You took me up, You were the Watcher over them; and You are a Witness to all things’” (Quran 5:116-117)

“ ‘Never did I say to them aught except what You (Allaah) did command me to say: Worship Allaah, my Lord and your Lord. And I was a witness over them while I dwelt amongst them, but when You took me up, You were the Watcher over them; and You are a Witness to all things’” (Quran 5:116-117)

This is what the Muslims believe about the Messiah ‘Eesa ibn Maryam (peace be upon him). 

Al-Bukhaari (3435) and Muslim (28) narrated from ‘Ubaadah (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Prophet ﷺ said: “Whoever bears witness that there is no god but Allah alone, with no partner or associate, and that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger, and that ‘Eesa is His slave and Messenger, a word which Allah bestowed upon Maryam and a spirit created by Him, and that Paradise is real, and Hell is real, Allah will admit him through whichever of the eight gates of Paradise he wishes.” 

MUHAMMAD

Prophet Muhammad (s) ﷺ was sent as a messenger to humanity as a model human being. Malik, Mawatta; Ahmed, Musnad and Mishkat al-Masabih report one of his saying: “God has sent me as an apostle so that I may demonstrate perfection of character, refinement of manners and superiority in behavior.”

He was so concerned about treating the people around him in the best possible way that he used to pray, “O God! I am but a man. If I hurt anyone in any manner, then forgive me and do not punish me.” (Ahmed, Musnad, Vol. 6 pg. 103)

Following are five advices of the Prophet ﷺ about the importance of good character.

  1. Hadith 285
    … Abu Hurayrah said that the Prophet of Allah, upon him be peace, said, “If one has good manners, one may attain the same level of merit as those who spend their nights in prayer.”
  2. Hadith 286
    … Abu Hurayrah said, “I heard Abu al Qasim (the Prophet), upon him be peace, say, ‘The best among you in Islam are those with the best manners, so long as they develop a sense of understanding.”
  3. Hadith 289
    … ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Amr said, “There are four characteristics that, if you possess them, will prevent you from being affected if you are deprived of certain worldly benefits. They are good character, chaste outlook, honesty, and trustworthiness.”
  4. Hadith 291
    … Umm Darda reported that Abu Darda got up one night to pray and began to cry, saying, “O Allah, You created me with a good nature. Now, give me good manners.” He repeated this prayer all night long. In the morning I said to him, “O Abu Darda, why did ‘you spend the entire night repeatedly praying for good manners?” He said to me, “O Umm Darda, a believer will spend his time improving his manners so that, by means of them, he may enter Paradise. If he neglects his manners, they will lead him to the Fire. Moreover, a good Muslim will be forgiven even while he sleeps.” When I asked him how that was possible, he replied, “His brother will get up at night and pray to Allah, and Allah will answer his prayers. He will pray for his brother, and Allah will answer his prayer for him as well.”
  5. Hadith 296
    … Nawas ibn Sam’an reported that the Prophet of Allah, upon him be peace, was asked about doing good and evil. He replied, “Doing good is having good manners. Doing evil is what troubles you inside and what you would not like others to know about.”

Many claim that the Quran is not the word of Allah and that Muhammad ﷺ has copied it from previous religions. Some say his revelations are a figment of his imagination to justify what his claims that it is the word of Allah. There are many more such acquisitions levelled against Muhammad ﷺ. For these allegations to be true, means that Muhammad ﷺ had to be one that deceives, is a liar and one whose intention was to lead people away from Allah and become a follower of satan. When someone leads people away from Allah can only imply that the person is leading people to satan. We have already seen the generocity of Muhammad ﷺ and we will come to see his ﷺ life and devotion to Allah.

What people do not realise is that these are very serious acquisitions made against a prophet of Allah which carries serious consequences. The facts alone will attest to his perfect character and unquestionable devotion to serving Allah.

As mentioned, Islam and the life of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ is the most documented in the 21st century.

It is also found that Muhammad’s ﷺ life is similarly well documented and preserved with scholars through the centuries ensuring the facts are preserved and authenticated with the likes of the above collections and many others.

How do we know what Hadith about the Prophet Mohammed ﷺ is Authentic?

Meaning of Hadith

The term “hadith” is one of the most used Islamic terms by both Muslims and non-Muslims. The term “hadith” has acquired in Islamic literature the very specific meaning of reports about what the Prophet ﷺ said, did, approved, and disapproved of, explicitly or implicitly. Indeed, hadith is considered as the main source of the “Sunnah” or “customary behavior” of the Prophet ﷺ. The other source is the “sira” / “seerah” or “biography” of the Prophet ﷺ. It is this technical meaning of the term “hadith” which is the focus here.

Any hadith consists of two parts, the first is known as “isnad” or “sanad,” and the second is known as “matn.” The generic meaning of “isnad,” whose plural is “asanid,” is “support” or “foundation.” But in the terminology of hadith it refers to the chain of transmitters of the hadith. These narrators are called “isnad” because they provide the “support” for the historicity of the hadith.

Lexically, “matn” denotes the visible part of something. In the technical language of Islamic literature, “matn” denotes the saying, behavior, or incident that is being reported by the chain of transmitters. To illustrate these concepts, this is a hadith about using the visibility of the new moon to determine the beginning and the end of the fasting month of Ramadan:

“Yahya bin Bukair told us on that al-Laith said, that ‘Uqail said, that ibn Shihab said, that Salim said, that ibn ‘Umar said that he heard the Messenger of Allah say: “When you see it start your fast and when you see it break your fast. If it was cloudy, make an estimate [for the start of end of the fasting month].” (Bukhari, 1900)

Authenticity of Hadith

The sciences which deal with checking a Hadith’s authenticity fall under Uloom Al Hadith (The sciences of Hadith). An example of one of the sciences which deal with checking the authenticity of a Hadith is Al Jarhu Wa Atta’deel. Ajjarhu Watta’deel (or Ilm Rijalul Hadeeth), goes through the sanad/chain of transmission and sees the states of the narrator, whether they are trustworthy /righteous or not, whether they are accurate (whether in memory or written form or both) or not and so on. Scholars of Hadith of the past have gone through many Ahadeeth to check and authenticate them.

Checking authenticity of hadith needs expertise and it is not a simple matter that one can do on himself/herself so a non-expert should be very careful in stating and using hadith (very commonly done by non-Muslims). There is an Islamic science that studies hadith and their authenticity and it is dependent on several other Islamic sciences

Any hadith that that contradicts the Quran cannot be authentic as Hadith and Quran works hand in hand.

Hadith collections have existed from the 1st century like The Sahifa of Hammam bin Munabbih: This is perhaps one of the earliest known hadith collections. Hammam bin Munabbih was a student of Abu Hurrairah and well-known among the scholars of the hadith to be trustworthy. According to the book Arabic Literature To The End of Ummayyad Periodt: An example is the Sahifah of Hammam bin Munabbih, (d. 110/719), a Yemenite follower and a disciple of companion Abu Hurrayrah, (d. 58/677), from whom Hammam wrote this Sahifah, which comprises 138 hadith and is believed to have been written around the mid-first AH/seventh century.

The author says; “It is significant that Hammam introduces his text with the words: “Abu Hurrairah told us in the course of what he related from the Prophet”, thus giving the source of his information in the manner which became known as “sanad” or “isnad”, i.e., the teacher of chain of teachers through whom an author reaches the Prophet, a practice invariably and systematically followed in Hadith compilations”.

From the 138 narrations in the Sahifa, 90 of them are faithfully witnessed in the later collections of al-Bukhari and Muslim, both through narrations of Abu Hurrairah and witnessing narrations from other companions.

Further he comments about the reports of Hammam found in the later compilations of Ibn Hanbal, al-Bukhari and Muslim by saying that: “… I have found practically no sign of careless or deceptive practices in the variant texts common to the Sahifa of Hammam bin Munabbih”.

In other words, it shows the meticulous nature of hadith transmission as well as high moral and upright characters of the transmitters as well as collectors of the hadith; a fact that Islamic traditions had always asserted and now the western scholarship endorses it.

There are several major collections of hadith and the below are the most commonly trusted Hadith collections;

  • Sahih Bukhari by Imam Bukhari,
  • Sahih Muslim by Muslim b. al-Hajjaj (d. 875),
  • Sunan al-Sughra by al-Nasa’i,
  • Sunan Abu Dawood by Abu Dawood,
  • Jami al-Tirmidhi by al-Tirmidhi,
  • Sunan ibn Majah by Ibn Majah.

As the Quran is preserved in the original Arabic language as given to the prophet Muhammad ﷺ so are all the Hadith books written in Arabic as the main language spoken. Working from the original scriptures key to authenticating translations.

Apart from the prophet Mohammad ﷺ many of the hadith are also from the companions and closest friends of the prophet Muhammad ﷺ 10 of the companions in particular was given good tidings by the prophet ﷺ that they were granted the promise of Jannah (paradise) while they still lived because of their obedience and always obeying the command of Allah. They were referred as the Ashara Mubashara (the ten who were promised Paradise). The term “Ashara Mubashara,” the phrase with the same meaning was also used.

Abdur Rahman ibn Awf reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said, “Abu Bakr is in Paradise, Umar is in Paradise, Uthman is in Paradise, Ali is in Paradise, Talha is in Paradise, Az-Zubair is in Paradise, Abdur Rahman ibn Awf is in Paradise, Sa’d is in Paradise, Sa’eed is in Paradise, and Abu Ubaida is in Paradise.”

Source: Sunan At-Tirmidhi 3747

Grade: Sahih (authentic) according to As-Suyuti

These companions are those who have the best of characters, manners and honesty and even though they were granted the promise of paradise, they never became ungrateful and always upheld their good characters and obedience to Allah.

One of the companions Abdur Rahman ibn Awf known as Abu Huraira (meaning father of kitten) so nick named for his love of cats, is known worldwide by millions of people for his famous hadith. Through his Prodigious efforts, hundreds of hadith or sayings of the Prophet ﷺ were transmitted to later generations. His is the foremost name in the roll of hadith transmitters. Next to him comes the names of such companions as Abdullah the son of Umar, Anas the son of Malik, Umm al-Mumininin Aishah, Jabir ibn Abdullah and Abu Said al-Khudri all of whom transmitted over a thousand sayings of the Prophet ﷺ.

Abu Hurairah became a Muslim at the hands of at-Tufayl ibn Amr the chieftain of the Daws tribe to which he belonged.

He stayed in Tihamah for several years and it was only at the beginning of the seventh year of the Hijrah that he arrived in Madinah with others of his tribe. The Prophet (saaw) had gone on a campaign to Khaybar. Being destitute, Abu Hurairah took up his place in the Masjid (mosque) with other of the Ahl as-Suffah. He was single, without wife or child. With him however was his mother who was still a mushrik. He longed, and prayed, for her to become a Muslim but she adamantly refused. One day, he invited her to have faith in Allah alone and follow His Prophet but she uttered some words about the Prophet ﷺ which saddened him greatly. With tears in his eyes, he went to the noble Prophet ﷺ who said to him: “What makes you cry, O Abu Hurairah?” “I have not let up in inviting my mother to Islam but she has always rebuffed me. Today, I invited her again and I heard words from her which I do not like. Do make supplication to Allah Almighty to make the heart of Abu Hurairah’s mother incline to Islam.”

The Prophet ﷺ responded to Abu Hurairah’s request and prayed for his mother. Abu Hurairah said: “I went home and found the door closed. I heard the splashing of water and when I tried to enter my mother said: “Stay where you are, O Abu Hurairah.” And after putting on her clothes, she said, “Enter!” I entered and she said: “I testify that there is no god but Allah and I testify that Muhammad is His Servant and His Messenger.”

“I returned to the Prophet, peace be on him, weeping with joy just as an hour before I had gone weeping from sadness and said: “I have good news, O Messenger of Allah. Allah has responded to your prayer and guided the mother of Abu Hurairah to Islam.”

Abu Hurairah loved the Prophet ﷺ a great deal and found favor with him. He was never tired of looking at the Prophet (saaw) whose face appeared to him as having all the radiance of the sun and he was never tired of listening to him. Often he would praise Allah for his good fortune and say: “Praise be to Allah Who has guided Abu Hurairah to Islam.” Praise be to Allah Who has taught Abu Hurairah the Quran.”

“Praise be to Allah who has bestowed on Abu Hurairah the companionship of Muhammad ﷺ may Allah bless him and grant him peace.” On reaching Madinah, Abu Hurairah set his heart on attaining knowledge. Zayd ibn Thabit the notable companion of the Prophet ﷺ reported: “While Abu Hurairah and I and another friend of mine were in the Masjid praying to Allah Almighty and performing dhikr to Him, the Messenger ﷺ of Allah appeared. He came towards us and sat among us. We became silent and he said: “Carry on with what you were doing.”

“So my friend and I made a supplication to Allah before Abu Hurairah did and the Prophet ﷺ began to say Ameen to our dua.

“Then Abu Hurairah made a supplication saying: “O Lord, I ask You for what my two companions have asked and I ask You for knowledge which will not be forgotten.”

“The Prophet ﷺ said: ‘Ameen.’ “We then said: ‘And we ask Allah for knowledge which will not be forgotten, and the Prophet ﷺ replied: ‘The Dawsi  youth has asked for this before you.” “With his formidable memory, Abu Hurairah set out to memorize in the four years that he spent with the Prophet, the gems of wisdom that emanated from his lips. He realised that he had a great gift and he set about to use it to the full in the service of Islam.

He had free time at his disposal. Unlike many of the Muhajirin he did not busy himself’ in the market-places, with buying and selling. Unlike many of the Ansar, he had no land to cultivate nor crops to tend. He stayed with the Prophet ﷺ in Madinah and went with him on journeys and expeditions.

Many companions were amazed at the number of hadith he had memorized and often questioned him on when he had heard a certain hadith and under what circumstances.

Once Marwan ibn al-Hakam wanted to test Abu Hurairah’s power of memory. He sat with him in one room and behind a curtain he placed a scribe, unknown to Abu Hurairah, and ordered him to write down whatever Abu Hurairah said. A year later, Marwan called Abu Hurairah again and asked him to recall the same hadith which the scribe had recorded. It was found that he had forgotten not a single word.

Abu Hurairah was concerned to teach and transmit the hadith he had memorized and knowledge of Islam in general. It is reported that one day he passed through the suq of Madinah and naturally saw people engrossed in the business of buying and selling.

“How feeble are you, O people of Madinah!” he said. “What do you see that is feeble in us, Abu Hurairah?” they asked. “The inheritance of the Messenger of Allah, peace be on him, is being distributed and you remain here! Won’t you go and take your portion?” “Where is this, O Abu Hurairah?” they asked. “In the Masjid,” he replied.

Quickly they left. Abu Hurairah waited until they returned. When they saw him, they said: “O Abu Hurairah, we went to the Masjid and entered and we did not see anything being distributed.” “Didn’t you see anyone in the Masjid?” he asked. “O yes, we saw some people performing Salah, some people reading the Quran and some people discussing about what is halal and what is haram.” “Woe unto you,” replied Abu Hurairah,” that is the inheritance of Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.”

Abu Hurairah underwent much hardship and difficulties as a result of his dedicated search for knowledge. He was often hungry and destitute. He said about himself:

“When I was afflicted with severe hunger, I would go to a companion’ of the Prophet ﷺ and asked him about an ayah of the Quran and (stay with him) learning it so that he would take me with him to his house and give food. “One day, my hunger became so severe that I placed a stone on my stomach. I then sat down in the path of the companions. Abu Bakr passed by and I asked him about an ayah of the Book of Allah. I only asked him so that he would invite me but he didn’t.

“Then Umar ibn al-Khattab passed by me and I asked him about an ayah but he also did not invite me. Then the Messenger of Allah, peace be on him, passed by and realized that I was hungry and said: “Abu Hurairah!” “At your command” I replied and followed him until we entered his house. He found a bowl of milk and asked his family: “From where did you get this?” “Someone sent it to you” they replied. He then said to me: “O Abu Hurairah, go to the Ahl as-Suffah and invite them.” Abu Hurairah did as he was told and they all drank from the milk.

The time came of course when the Muslims were blessed with great wealth and material goodness of every description. Abu Hurairah eventually got his share of wealth. He had a comfortable home, a wife and child. But this turn of fortune did not change his personality. Neither did he forget his days of destitution. He would say about himself:  “I grew up as an orphan and I emigrated as a poor and indigent person. I used to take food for my stomach from Busrah bint Ghazwan. I served people when they returned from journeys and led their camels when they set out. Then God caused me to marry her (Busrah). So praise be to Allah who has strengthened his religion and made Abu Hurairah an imam.” (This last statement is a reference to the time when he became governor of Madinah.)

Much of Abu Hurairah’s time would be spent in spiritual exercises and devotion to Allah. Qiyam al-Layl staying up for the night in prayer and devotion – was a regular practice of his family including his wife and his daughter. He would stay up for a third of the night, his wife for another third and his daughter for a third. In this way, in the house of Abu Hurairah no hour of the night would pass without ibadah, dhikr and Salah.

During the caliphate of Umar, Umar appointed him as governor of Bakrain. Umar was very scrupulous about the type of persons whom he appointed as governors. He was always concerned that his governors should live simply and frugally and not acquire much wealth even though this was through lawful means.

In Bahrain, Abu Hurayrah became quite rich. Umar heard of this and recalled him to Madinah. Umar thought he had acquired his wealth through unlawful means and questioned him about where and how he had acquired such a fortune. Abu Hurairah replied: “From breeding horses and gifts which I received.” “Hand it over to the treasury of the Muslims,” ordered Umar. Abu Hurairah did as he was told and raised his hands to the heavens and prayed: “O Lord, forgive the Amir al-Muminin.” Subsequently, Umar asked him to become governor once again but he declined. Umar asked him why he refused and he said: “So that my honor would not be besmirched, my wealth taken and my back beaten.” And he added: “And I fear to judge without knowledge and speak without wisdom. “Throughout his life Abu Hurayrah remained kind and courteous to his mother.

Whenever he wanted to leave home, he would stand at the door of her room and say: As-salaamu alaykum, yaa ummataah, wa rahrnatullahi wa barakatuhu, peace be on you, mother, and the mercy and blessings of Allah.” She would reply: “Wa alayka-s salaam, yaa bunayya, wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuhu – And on you be peace, my son, and the mercy and blessings of Allah.” Often, he would also say: “May Allah have mercy on you as you cared for me when I was small,” and she would reply: “May Allah have mercy on you as you delivered me from error when I was old.” Abu Hurairah always encouraged other people to be kind and good to their parents. One day he saw two men walking together, one older than the other. He asked the younger one: “What is this man to you?” “My father,” the person replied. “Don’t call him by his name. Don’t walk in front of him and don’t sit before him,” advised Abu Hurairah.

Muslims owe a debt of gratitude to Abu Hurayrah for helping to preserve and transmit the valuable legacy of the Prophet, may God bless him and grant him peace. He died in the year 59 AH when he was seventy-eight years old.

There were many hypocrites at the time who portrayed themselves as Muslims but where in fact enemies of Islam who endeavour to course doubt and would often change the revelations and sayings of the prophet they heard and then pass it unto others stating Muhammad said this… For this reason any sayings or revelations were always confirmed that it did in fact come from the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ.

SEERAH OF THE PROPHET MUHAMMAD

In every religion people write stories about the prophets, like Moses (phuh), Jesus (phuh) and the Prophet Mohammad ﷺ In many cases the stories vary as they are not factual in nature and most often people’s opinions and unauthentic sources are used. For the purpose of seeking truth we have to ensure that our sources of information is reliable and accurate.

The life of the Prophet Mohammad ﷺ is based on his Seerah. The word ‘Seerah’ comes from a verb that means ‘to travel’. The biography of a person is called Seerah because when we read it, we are essentially traveling the person’s journey. So, when we study the life and times of the Prophet ﷺ it is as if we are following in his footsteps; it is as if we are traveling in his journey.

The Prophet Muhammad ﷺ is the most well documented person that has ever lived where almost every aspect of his life is recorded. As the Seerah is extremely long we will only focus on key aspects of his life for the purpose of this book.

What are the sources of the Seerah?

Quran

One of the main sources of the Seerah is the Quran. As the Quran is revealed over 23 years and caters around things that happened then the Quran references almost every single major incident that happened during the life of the Prophet ﷺ.

Hadith

The second source of the Seerah is the Hadith, in fact every Hadith is a snapshot of the Seerah.

Books of the Seerah

The third source of Seerah is the books that are written specifically for the Seerah. The first people to start writing books of the Seerah are the children of the companions of the Prophet ﷺ.

Most famous of them is Urwah ibn Zubair – he is the son of a companion, grandson of a companion, his mother was a companion and so was his brother. Moreover, his aunt was Aisha (R), the wife of Prophet ﷺ. Therefore, Urwah is the primary narrator of a lot of the Hadith and Seerah because he had access to Aisha (R) – Aisha (R) being his aunt, did not need to be in Hizab around him. There are many other such books but for the purpose of book we do not need to mention all of them.

Ibn Ishaq

The greatest scholar of Seerah is Muhammad Ibn Ishaq who was born in Madina around year 85 of Islamic calendar. He grew up with the children and grandchildren of the companions and maybe he even met some of the companions as well. Ibn Ishaq began writing everything that he heard, he had a passion for the Seerah. He began compiling the Seerah in chronological order. His primary source of information was the people in Madina but he also traveled to other cities to gather information. One of the best thing about his compilation is that he compiled everything with the chain of the narrators or ‘Isnad’. The chain of narrators tells us where the story came from. It was important to follow the chain of narrators so there was no doubt as to the Seerah of the Prophet authenticity.

Ibn Ishaq died at 150 Hijra, by then he had written a massive book which had up to15 volumes. It was so big that it was difficult to copy – as we know, back then to copy you had to write everything from cover to cover. Therefore, later on, Ibn Hisham who was the student of the student of Ibn Ishaq, decided to summarize the work of Ibn Ishaq. Ibn Hisham did not add anything, he subtracted. He did not rearrange, he simply deleted. Nowadays Ibn Hisham is available in four volumes. Ibn Hisham died 213 Hijra.

Shama’il

The fourth source of Seerah are the books written on the characteristics of the Prophet ﷺ. In Arabic, these types of books are called Shama’il. A number of early authors wanted to describe the Prophet ﷺ and they wrote books about his description. The most famous of those books is Shama’il Tirmidhi.

The Shama’il (specialities) is a genre of books that deals with the looks, characteristics, manners, and possessions etc of the Prophet ﷺ

Dala’il

Another source of Seerah the books written about the miracles of the Prophet ﷺ In Arabic, they are called Dala’il. There are many such books, by looking at the miracles described there, we can extract Seerah. The most famous book of Dala’il is called Dala’il-un-Nubuwwah al-Bayhaqi. This is a massive book, it contains around 12 volumes.

History of the companions

The other sources of Seerah includes the history of the companions. There are recorded histories about some of the companions, from which we can gather information about the Seerah. These followers known as Taabi’ een where to devoted seeking reports of the Seerah and transmitting them through the books they wrote as Abaan ibn ‘Uthmaan ibn Affaan (R) (32-105 AH) and Urwah ibn az- Zubayr ibn al ‘Awaam (23-93 AH). Amongst the lessor Taabi’een there were Abudullah ibn Abi Bakr al-Ansaari (d 135 AH); Muhammad ibn Muslim ibn Shihaab az-Zuhri (50 -124 AH), who compiled a book on Sunnah at the time of ‘Umar ibn Abdul’- Azeez, by his command; and ‘Asim ibn Umar ibn ‘Qutaadah al-Ansaari (d 129 AH). Then there are books about the histories of Makkah and Madina, by reading the histories of these two cities, we can also extract information about the Seerah of the Prophet ﷺ.

The Elephant Refuses To Move

Abrahah, who came from Abyssinia-a country in Africa-conquered Yemen and was made vice-regent there. Later, he noticed that at a certain time of the year large numbers of people would travel from all over Yemen and the rest of Arabia to Mecca. He asked the reason for this and was told that they were going on pilgrimage to the Ka’bah. Abrahah hated the idea of Mecca being more important than his own country, so he decided to build a church of colored marble, with doors of gold and ornaments of silver, and ordered the people to visit it instead of the Ka’bah. But no one obeyed him.

Abrahah became angry and decided to destroy the Ka’bah. He prepared a large army led by an elephant and set off towards Mecca. When the Meccans heard that he was coming they became very frightened. Abrahah’s army was huge and they could not fight it. But how could they let him destroy the Holy Ka’bah? They went to ask the advice of their leader, ‘Abd al-Muttalib. When Abrahah arrived outside Mecca, ‘Abd al-Muttalib went to meet him. Abrahah said, ‘What do you want?’ Abrahah had taken Abd al-Muttalib’s camels, which he had found grazing as he entered Mecca, so ‘Abd al-Muttalib replied, ‘I want my camel’s back.’ Abrahah was very surprised and said, ‘I have come to destroy your Holy Ka‟bah, the holy place of your fathers, and you ask me about some camels?’ ‘Abd al-Muttalib replied calmly, ‘The camels belong to me; the Ka‟bah belongs to Allah and He will protect it.’

 Then he left Abrahah and went back to Quraysh and ordered them to leave Mecca and wait for their enemies in the mountains. In the morning Abrahah prepared to enter the town. He put armor on his elephant and drew up his troops for battle. He intended to destroy the Ka’bah and then return to Yemen. At that moment, however, the elephant knelt down and refused to get up, no matter how much the soldiers tried to get it to move by beating it. But when they turned its face in the direction of Yemen it immediately got up and started off. In fact, it did the same in any other direction, but as soon as they pointed it towards Mecca it knelt down again.

Suddenly, flocks of birds appeared from over the sea. Each bird carried three stones as small as peas and they dropped them on Abrahah1s army. The soldiers suddenly fell ill. Even Abrahah was hit by the stones and fled in fear with the rest of his army back to Yemen, where he later died. On seeing their enemy flee the Arabs came down from the mountains to the Ka‟bah and gave thanks to Allah.

Quraysh gained great respect and became known as ‘the people of Allah’, and the year in which these events took place, 570A.D, was named the ‘Year of the Elephant’. In that year Allah had saved the Ka’bah and he would soon bring forth a Prophet from among Quraysh. In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful:

“Hast thou not seen how thy Lord dealt with the owners of the Elephant? Did He not bring their stratagem to naught, And send against them swarms of flying creatures, Which pelted them with stones of baked clay, And made them like green crops devoured (by cattle)? (Qur’an 105.1-5)

Lineage of the Prophet Mohammad ()

Over the years Ishmael’s children themselves had children. His descendants increased and formed tribes which spread out all over Arabia. One of these tribes was called Quraysh. Its people never moved away from Mecca and always lived near the Ka’bah. Banu Hashim is one of the clans of the Quraysh tribe, and is an Adnanite tribe. It derives its name from Hashim ibn Abd Manaf, the great-grandfather of Muhammad ﷺ and along with the Banu Abd Shams, Banu Al-Muttalib, and Banu Nawfal clans comprises the Banu Abd al-Manaf section of the Quraysh.

Many have questioned the linage of the prophet Muhammad ﷺ stating that his linage was from Yemen and not was in no way a descendent of Ismail. Sheikh `Abd al-`Azîz b. `Abd Allah b. Muhammad Al al-Sheikh, Grand Mufti of Saudi Arabia provides the following answer.

Allah sent to the Arabs a Messenger who was one of their number.

Allah says: “Allah did confer a great favor on the believers when He sent among them a Messenger from among themselves, rehearsing unto them the Signs of Allah, sanctifying them, and instructing them in Scripture and Wisdom, while, before that, they had been in manifest error.” [Quran –Sûrah Al-`Imrân: 164]

The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “Allah chose Kinânah from the progeny of Ishmael and chose Quraysh from the progeny of Kinânah and chose the tribe of Banû Hâshim from the progeny of Quraysh. Then he chose me from among Banû Hâshim.” [Sahîh Muslim (4/1789)]

When the Roman governor Heracles met the Quraysh nobleman Abû Sufyân who was an avowed enemy of Islam, he asked him a number of questions about Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). Among the matters that Heracles asked about was the lineage of the Prophet (peace be upon him).

Abû Sufyân informed him that Muhammad (SWA) was a man of respectable lineage. To this Heracles said: “Likewise, the Messengers share the lineage of the people to whom they are sent.” [Sahîh al-Bukhârî (1/5-6) and Sahîh Muslim (3/1393-1397)]

The Prophet (peace be upon him) was of a most noble lineage which is expressed as follows:

Muhammad the son of `Abd Allah the son of `Abd al-Muttalib the son of Hâshim the son of `Abd Manâf the son of Qusayy the son of Kulâb the son of Murrah the son of Ka`b the son of Lu`ayy the son of Ghâlib the son of Fahr the son of Mâlik the son of al-Nadr the son of Kinânah the son of Khuzaymah the son of Mudrakah the son of Ilyâs the son of Mudar the son of Nizâr the son of Mu`idd the son of `Adnân.

To this point the lineage is unquestionably authentic. It is agreed upon by all the genealogical experts of the Arabs. Disagreement comes into play when we try to go further back than `Adnân.

What we know for sure is that `Adnân was from the descendants of Prophet Ishmael (peace be upon him) and Ishmael was of course the son of Prophet Abraham (peace be upon him).

The Prophet’s mother was Aminah the daughter of Wahb the son of `Abd Manâf the son of Zahrah the son of Kulâb the son of Murrah and continues back with the same lineage as that of the Prophet ﷺ

The House of Abdul-Muttalib of Banu Hashim comprised of nobility in pre-Islamic Mecca. This was based on their hereditary duty to act as stewards and caretakers of the pilgrims coming to Mecca to worship at the Kaaba.

One of the duties of the leader of Quraysh was to look after those who came on pilgrimage to the Ka’bah. The, pilgrims would come from all over Arabia and it was a great honor to provide them with food and water. The prophet Mohammad was thus born from the Banu Hashim tribe, the noblest of the branches of Quraysh. Quraysh in itself was the noblest of all Arab tribes and the purist in descent and the highest in status.

Another important element of the Prophet ﷺ is his election (iṣṭefā). He ﷺ says: “I am Muḥammad, son of ʿAbdillah, son of ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib. Allah created all creation, and drew me from the best of His creatures; and He made them of two branches, and made me from the best branch; and He created the tribes; and drew me from the best tribe; and He divided them into houses, and drew me from the best house amongst them, and I am the best one amongst them.” In the Qurʾān, a whole chapter is dedicated to the house of ʿImrān. ʿIṣā, Marīam, Zakariyā and Yahyā, peace be upon them all, were all from the house of ʿImrān. This house was the elected house from the tribe of Israʾīl, who were another elected tribe. The Prophet ﷺ was the Elect (al-Muṣṭafā). When he ﷺ would explain his noble lineage to his Companions, he ﷺ would always make sure to tell them that his stating this was not out of pride. He ﷺ would say: “I am the best of the sons of Adam, and I do not mention this out of pride (wa lā fakhr).’’

Allah has selected Prophets from amongst the best lineages of their People for a reason. This alone is a science – an entire topic for another discussion. But let us at least mention that one of the reasons why Allah, exalted is He, selects Prophets in this way is to help them spreading the Divine Message. A noble man, well-respected in his society, does not have any need to lie or to create a lie about himself to earn esteem for himself in people’s eyes and be followed by them. His family background already confers him with an honored status in his community and a position of authority. The family background and lineage of the Prophet ﷺ was the best and the highest as described even by Abu Sufyan, his enemy at the time. The same was true of the other Prophets amongst their respective communities, including the Prophet Jesus (pbuh), the Prophet Moses (pbuh), the Prophet David (phuh), peace be upon them all. Before the emergence of each of these Prophets, people in their communities were already anticipating that Prophets would emerge from their families because those families were the most noble, honorable, God-fearing and God-knowing in their societies. To understand this, think about how today a scholar who comes from a family of generations of scholarship will have a much easier time establishing his credibility and standing in his community than one who does not have such a family background.

The noble lineage of the Prophet ﷺ revealed the light of prophecy. Imām al-Busayrī writes:

His birth revealed the purity of his original element, how fine his origin, how pure his final end!

Maysara Al Dhabbi said he asked the Prophet ﷺ “Oh, Messenger of Allah, when did you become a prophet?” He ﷺ answered, “While Adam was still between the soul and the body.”

The Marriage of Abdullah to Amina (The prophet’s parents)

Abd al Muttalib started to make plans for Abdullah’s future when he was 18 years old and his father thought it was time for him to marry, so he started to search for a suitable match. After much consideration he came to the conclusion that Amina, the orphaned daughter of Wahb, would be the most compatible bride for his son. Amina was of noble birth, her father, Wahb had been the chief of the Zuhra, a branch of the Quraysh, but upon his death, her paternal uncle, Wuhayb had become its new chieftain and taken care of her. His own daughter, Halah, was of similar age and so the two girls had grown up together like sisters.

Among Amina’s many qualities she was known for her honorable, endearing character and to compliment these characteristics she was very intelligent. Years later, Prophet Muhammad ﷺ, confirmed her status when he told his companions, “I have been chosen from the most choice.” During Abd Al Muttalib’s search for a suitable bride for his beloved son, it came to his notice that Wuhayb’s daughter, Halah, was also of marriageable age, so he asked his permission to marry her himself. A proposal such as this was indeed a great honor and through these kind of arrangements essential inter−tribal ties were often strengthened.

Upon his return, Abd Al Muttalib told Abdullah that he had found the perfect match for him. Abdullah was overjoyed when he heard all the wonderful things his father had to say about Amina and so preparations for a double wedding were made. As soon as the wedding preparations had been finalized, the bridal party set out for the house of Wahb. On the way to the celebration, people came out of their houses to greet the procession and wish them well. Abdullah had always been handsome, but that day he looked more handsome than ever. Kutaylah a cousin of Abdullah and the sister of Warrakah, a biblical scholar who studied the Bible under Jews and Christians and studied an Arabic translation of the New Testament. Waraka often told Kutayla about the coming of a prophet to the Arabs as foretold in the scriptures. As the procession grew near Kutaylah noticed something very special about Abdullah that day, she had seen a radiant light upon his face, the like of which she had never seen before. She thought back about what Waraka told here about the coming of a prophet and wondered ‘could Abdullah be the prophet foretold or perhaps the father of the prophet’.

As the party passed the homes of the Bani Asad Kutaylah called out to Abdullah and with the permission of his father he stopped to speak with her. Kutaylah on impulse asked Abdullah to marry her, offering him the same number of camels. Abdullah was astonished by the proposal but decline her offer and the bridal procession continued on its way.

In those days it was the custom to stay in the house of the bride for several days after the marriage and then take her to her new home shortly afterwards. However, a few days after Abdullah and Amina’s marriage, it was necessary for Abdullah to return home. On his way he met Kutaylah again and asked her why she did not again asked him to marry him. She said ‘the light that was with thee have left thee’.

Amina conceived on the first night of their marriage and the young couple were very happy together. Everything his father had told him proved to be true, and Abdullah was as delighted with Amina as she was with him. Two months after their marriage Abdullah joined a trading caravan destined for Al Shams. Today, Al Shams is a conglomerate of several countries known to us as Syria, Jordan and Palestine. On the return journey, Abdullah was taken seriously ill in Yathrib. Abdullah had many relatives in Yathrib and so the caravan left him in their care and continued on to Mecca without him.

The death of Abudullah

A messenger bearing news of Abdullah’s illness was sent on in advance of the caravan and as soon as Abd Al Muttalib heard the disturbing news he sent his eldest son, Harith, to Yathrib to bring Abdullah home. Harith was not destined to see his brother again as Abdullah died before he reached Yathrib and so he was buried near his cousins, the children of Adiyy, the son of Najjar in Yathrib. Harith returned to Mecca and conveyed the saddening news to his father and Amina whereupon great sorrow fell upon the entire family.

The Birth of The Prophet Muhammad .

Allah, the Most High, made Amina’s pregnancy easy for her, in fact she commented that she didn’t feel any different from her usual self. Even while giving birth she felt no pain. However, as her pregnancy progressed Amina became aware of a light shining from within her. One night in particular, the light was so spiritually, intensely bright that she had the ability to see the castles and turrets of faraway Basra in Al Shams. During her pregnancy, Amina had many visions concerning her unborn baby. On one such occasion she heard a voice telling her, “You are carrying in your womb the master of this nation. When he is born say, ‘I place him under the protection of the One from the evil of every envier; and you shall name him Muhammad.'”

On Monday, the twelfth day of Rabi al-Awwal in the Year of the Elephant, Amina gave birth to a son. Ibn Sa‘d reported that Muhammad’s ﷺ mother said: “When he was born, there was a light that issued out of my pudendum (genital organs) and lit the palaces of Syria.” Ahmad reported on the authority of ‘Arbadh Ibn Sariya something similar to this. Ibn Sa’d narrated that when Aamina ﷺ gave birth to the Prophet ﷺ he had no meconium (fetal fecal According to narrations by Ibn Umar ﷺ and others Prophet Muhammad ﷺ was born circumcised and with his umbilical cord already cut off. Anas ﷺ related that the Prophet ﷺ said, “One of the signs of the honor I have been given by my Lord is that I was born circumcised, and no one saw my private parts.”. Ibn Abbas ﷺ also said that Aamina ﷺ said, “When I gave birth to the Prophet, with him came out a light that lit the space between the east and west. He then fell on the ground, and leaning on his hands, took a handful of soil, grasped it, then raised his head toward Heaven.”Al Tabarani narrates that when he fell to the ground, he had his fingers drawn together, with the index finger pointing, testifying to the oneness of Allah. On that day all the idols on Earth turned upside down. Quraish was suffering from a severe drought and great distress, but through this blessed event the earth turned green and the trees bore fruit, and blessing came to them from every direction. Because of these blessed signs, the year when Muhammad (ﷺ) was conceived was called the Year of Triumph and Joy.

Allah sends man many signs when one of His chosen Prophets is born and on that twelfth day of Rabi al-Awwal in the year 570 A.D, many such signs were seen. Some were seen by Jewish scholars who had read in their scriptures of a coming Prophet. One of these learned men in Yathrib, for instance, saw a brilliant new star he had never seen before as he studied the heavens that night. He called the people around him and, pointing the star out to them, told them a Prophet must have been born. That same night another Jew was passing by the meeting place of the leaders of Quraysh in Mecca. He asked them if a baby boy had just been born and told them that if it were true, this would be the Prophet of the Arab nation.

Amina sent news of the birth to her father-in-law, ‘Abd al-Muttalib, who was sitting near the Ka’bah at the time. He was very happy and began at once to think of a name for the boy. An ordinary name would not do. Six days came and went and still he had not decided. But on the seventh day, as he lay asleep near the Ka‟bah, ‘Abd al-Muttalib dreamt that he should give the baby the unusual name of Muhammad, just as Amina herself had dreamt. And the child was called Muhammad ﷺ, which means ‘the Praised One’. When ‘Abd al Muttalib told the leaders of Quraysh what he had named his grandson, many of them asked, ‘Why did you not choose the sort of name that is used by our people?’ At once he replied, ‘I want him to be praised by Allah in the heavens and praised by men on earth.

Halimah

It was customary for babies to be sent to the desert and raised by a wet-nurse. The deserts fresh air was good for young babies and was a place where children learnt to ride a horse and shoot a bow and arrow for hunting amongst other things, one of them being poetry and being able to speak eloquently.

Among the women who travelled to Mecca to fetch a new baby at the time Aminah’s son was born, was a Bedouin woman called Halimah.

With her was her husband and baby son. They had always been very poor but this year things were harder than ever because there had been famine. The donkey that earned Halimah on the journey was so weak from hunger that he often stumbled. Halimah’s own baby son cried all the time because his mother could not feed him properly. Even there she-camel did not give them one drop of milk. Halimah did not know what to do. She thought to herself, ‘How can I possibly feed another baby when I haven’t got enough milk even for my own son?’ 

At last they reached Mecca. All the other women of the tribe to which Halimah belonged, the Bani Sa’d, found a child to take back with them, but not Halimah. The only baby left was Muhammad ﷺ. Usually the father paid the wet-nurse but Mohammed‟s ﷺ father was dead. So no one wanted to take him, even though he was from one of the noblest families of Quraysh. Halimah did not want to take him either, but she did not want to be the only woman to go back to her tribe without a baby to bring up. She asked her husband whether she should take Muhammad ﷺ or not. He advised her to do so, adding, ‘Perhaps Allah will bless us because of him.’

They started on the return journey and as soon as Halimah began to feed Muhammad ﷺ her milk suddenly increased and she had enough for him as well as her baby son. When they were back home, everything began to change. The land became green, and the date trees, one of their main sources of food, gave lots of fruit. Even the sheep and their old she-camel began to give plenty of milk. Halimah and her husband knew that this good fortune had come because they had the new baby, Muhammad ﷺ, whom they had come to love as if he were their own son. When Muhammad ﷺ was two years old, Halimah took him back to his mother. She pleaded with Aminah to let her keep him for a little longer, and to her great joy the mother agreed. During his time with Halimah’s family in the desert, Muhammad ﷺ played with her children and together they would take the sheep out to graze. At other times, however, Halimah would often find him sitting alone. They saw in him remarkable qualities of kindness, honesty and good character.One day when Muhammand ﷺ was playing outside with other the other boys an Angil came to him.

It was narrated from Anas ibn Maalik (may Allaah be pleased with him) that that Jibreel came to the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) when he was playing with the other boys. He took hold of him and threw him to the ground, then he opened his chest and took out his heart, from which he took a clot of blood and said: “This was the Shaytaan’s share of you.” Then he washed it in a vessel of gold that was filled with Zamzam. Then he put it back together and returned it to its place. The boys went running to his mother – meaning his nurse – and said: Muhammad has been killed! They went to him and his colour had changed. Anas said: I used to see the mark of that stitching on his chest. (Narrated by Muslim (162)). 

Halimah and her husband were very worried by this event, and thus they immediately set out to Makkah to return the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) to his mother. His mother realised something had occurred, and reassured them that Shaytaan would never be able to get a hold of the Prophet ﷺ. She recounts the miraculous events during her pregnancy e.g. she did not feel any burden whatsoever during the pregnancy. Later he would look back with joy on the time he had spent with Halimah, and he always thought of himself as one of the Bani Sa’d.

Three years later Amina decided to take her son to visit his uncles in Yathrib. She told her maid, Barakah, to prepare everything they would need for the long journey, and then they joined one of the caravans going there. They stayed in Yathrib a month and Muhammad ﷺ enjoyed the visit with his cousins. The climate there was very pleasant and he learned to swim and to fly a kite. On their way back to Mecca, however, Aminah became ill and died. She was buried in the village at al-Abwa not far from Yathrib. Muhammad ﷺ returned sadly to Mecca with his mother’s maid He was now six years old and had lost both his father and mother. He was then adopted by his grandfather, Abd al-Muttalib, who loved him dearly and kept him by his side at all times. It was the custom of ‘Abd al-Muttalib to sit on a blanket near the Ka‟bah. There he was always surrounded by people who had come to speak to him. No one was allowed to sit on the blanket with him, however, except his grandson Muhammad ﷺ, which shows how close they were to each other. Many times ‘Abd al-Muttalib was heard to say: ‘My son is destined for greatness.’

Two years later ‘Abd al-Muttalib became ill and Muhammad ﷺ stayed by him constantly. ‘Abd al-Muttalib told his son, Abu Talib, to adopt Muhammad ﷺ after his death, which he did. Abu Talib had many children of his own, but Muhammad ﷺ immediately became part of his family and the favorite child. The time came for Quraysh to prepare a caravan to go to Syria. Abu Talib was going with them and he took Muhammad ﷺ along. It was Muhammad‟s ﷺ first journey to the north. After days of travel, the caravan arrived at a place near Syria where the Romans used to come to trade with the Arabs. Near this marketplace lived a Christian monk called Bahira‟. His cell had been used by generations of monks before him and contained ancient manuscripts.

Bahira’ saw the caravan in the distance and was amazed to see that over it was a large white cloud. It was the only cloud in a clear blue sky and it appeared to be shading one of the travellers. The monk was even more surprised to see that the cloud seemed to follow the caravan but disappeared when the person it was shading sat down under a tree. Bahira‟ knew from the scriptures that a prophet was expected to come after Jesus (phuh) and it had been his wish to see this prophet before he died. Realizing that what he had just seen was a miracle, he began to think that his wish might, after all, come true. The monk sent an invitation to the Meccans to come and eat with him. The Arabs were surprised because they often passed by and Bahira‟ had never invited them before. When the group was all together for the meal, the monk said, ‘Is this everyone?‟ ‘No’, someone said, ‘a boy was left watching the camels.’ Bahira‟ insisted that the boy should join them. The boy was Muhammad ﷺ. When he arrived Bahira‟ said nothing, but watched him all through the meal. He noticed many things about his appearance which fitted the description in the old manuscripts. Later on he took him aside and asked Muhammad ﷺ many questions. He soon found out how he felt about the idols in the Ka’bah. When Bahira tried to make him swear by them, as the Arabs used to do, Muhammad ﷺ said, ‘There is nothing in this world that I hate more’. They talked together about Allah and about Muhammad‟s ﷺ life and family. Then he asked Muhammad ﷺ if he could see his back and when Muhammad ﷺ removed his shirt he seen the mark between his should blades in the self same place as explained in his manuscripts. The mark like a portion of raised skin as left by a cupping glass, the seal of prophet hood. What was said and seeing the seal of prophet hood on Muhammad’s ﷺ back confirmed to Bahira that this was indeed the Prophet who would follow Jesus (phuh).

Then the monk went to Abu Talib and asked him how he how he was related to Muhammad ﷺ. Abu Talib said ‘ he is my son’ Bahira replied ‘ He is not thy son, it cannot be this this boys father is still alive’. ‘He is my brother’s son’ replied Abu Talib. ‘that is correct’ said Bahira and he told Abu Talib to watch over Muhammad ﷺ with great care.

There are many stories told about Muhammed‟s ﷺ youth. Some tell of how he used to take the family’s sheep to graze and was always kind to them. While they grazed he would sit thinking about the mysteries of nature. Unlike those around him he never worshipped the idols and never swore by them. He also wondered why people were always struggling for power and and money, and this saddened him and made him feel lonely, but he kept his feelings to himself. He was a quiet, thoughtful boy, and rarely played with other boys of his age. On one occasion, however, Muhammad ﷺ went with some of the boys to a wedding in Mecca. When he reached the house he heard the sounds of music and dancing but just as he was about to enter he suddenly felt tired and, sitting down, fell asleep. He didn’t wake up until late the next morning and thus missed the celebrations. In this way Allah prevented him from doing anything foolish for He was keeping Muhammad ﷺ for something much more important.

 The Prophets Marriage

Muhammad ﷺ was popularly known as ‘al-Ameen’ for his unimpeachable character by the Makkans and visitors alike. The title Al-Ameen means the Honest, the Reliable and the Trustworthy, and it signified the highest standard of moral and public life.

By the time Muhammad ﷺ was twenty-five he was famous for his honesty. He was respected by everyone, even the elders of Mecca. The purity of his nature increased with the years. It seemed he had an inner knowledge that other people did not have. He believed in one All as the Creator of the world-and he worshipped Him with all his heart and with all his soul. Muhammad ﷺ was the finest of his people, the most kind, truthful and reliable person in Mecca.

He spent many quiet hours in a cave in Mount Hira, not far from Mecca, thinking about Allah. Among Quraysh was a respected and wealthy woman named Khadijah. She was involved in trade and on hearing of Mohammed‟s ﷺ reputation, sent for him and asked him to take her goods and trade with them in Syria. Muhammad ﷺ agreed and left for Syria with one of Khadijah’s caravans.

With him went her slave, Maysarah, and they spent a great deal of time talking together. Maysarah soon came to admire Muhammad ﷺ and found him to be unlike any other man of Quraysh. Two unusual events took place during this journey which puzzled Maysarah very much. The first happened when they stopped to rest near a cell of a monk, the very same cell that Bahiera occupied when Muhammad ﷺ with just a boy. Muhammad ﷺ sat under a tree while Maysarah was busy with some work. The monk came up to Maysarah and asked, ‘Who is the man resting under the tree?’ ‘One of Quraysh, the people who guard the Ka‟bah’, said Maysarah. ‘No one but a Prophet is sitting beneath this tree’, replied the monk.

The second event occurred on the journey back to Mecca. It happened at noon, when the sun is at its hottest. Maysarah was riding behind Muhammad ﷺ and as the sun grew hotter he court a glims of two angels appear above Muhammad ﷺ and shield him from the sun’s harmful rays.

The trading was very successful and Muhammad ﷺ made more profit for Khadijah than she had ever received before. When they arrived back in Mecca Maysarah told Khadijah everything about the trip and what he had noticed about Mohammed‟s ﷺ character and behaviour and what the monk had told him. Khadijah was a widow in her forties and as well as being rich and highly respected she was also very beautiful. Many men wanted to marry her but none of them suited her Many men wanted to marry her but none of them suited her. When she met Muhammad ﷺ however, she thought he was very special.

She sent a friend to ask Muhammad ﷺ why he was not married. Muhammad ﷺ said that it was because he had no money, to which the friend replied: ‘Supposing a rich, beautiful and noble lady agreed to marry you?’ Muhammad ﷺ wanted to know who that could be. The friend told him it was Khadijah. Muhammad ﷺ was very happy, because he greatly respected Khadijah. He went with his uncles, Abu Talib and Hamzah, to Khadijah’s uncle, and asked his permission to marry her. The uncle gave his permission and soon after, Muhammad ﷺ and Khadijah were married.

Their marriage was a joyful one and Muhammad ﷺ. Their marriage was a joyful one and Muhammad ﷺ and Khadijah were well suited. Their life together, however, was not without some sadness. They were blessed with six children, two sons and four daughters. Sadly their first born, a son called Qasim, died shortly before his second birthday, and their last child, also a son, only lived for a short time. Happily, their four daughters-Zaynab, Ruqayyah, Umm Kulthum, and Fatimah-all survived.

For a few years Muhammad ﷺ lived a calm and quiet life as a merchant in Mecca. His wisdom benefited many people. One day after huge flood caused damage to the Ka’bah which had to be rebuilt. When it came to place the black stone in its place disagreements broke out amongst the tribes as to who’s right it should be. The disagreements went on for days and they began to prepare to fight each other when one of the elders suggested they appoint the next man that entered the gate of Mecca as arbitor amongst them which everyone agreed on. Not long after Muhammad entered the gate and they said ‘it is Al-‘amin, we except his recommendation’ they said. When the disagreement was explained to the prophet ﷺ, he asked that a large cloak be brought to him. He spread out the cloak on the ground and told each of the tribes to take hold of one end. He put the black stone in the centre of the cloak and told them to raise up the cloak all together and when it was at the correct height he himself placed the black stone into its position. This shows the respect and high esteem they held for Muhammed in trusting his good judgement and good sense and thus keeping the peace.

The Ka’bah was still called the house of Allah at the time but the chief objects of worship came to be a number of idols placed inside, sculptural depictions of deities they believed to be the daughters of God which acted as intercessors. The few who felt disgust at this idolatry which had prevailed for centuries longed for the religion of Abraham. Such seekers of the truth were known as Hunafaa, a word originally meaning “those who turn away” from idol-worship.  These Hunafaa did not form a community, but rather each sought the truth by the light of their own inner consciousness.  Muhammad ﷺ was one of these.

Muhammad First Encounter with Jibreel (AS) (Gabriel)

The Prophet Muhammad’s ﷺ first revelation started at the age of 40 in the month of Ramadan 610 (C.E).

Aisha, mother of the believers, reported: The beginning of the revelation to the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, was in the form of good dreams which came true like bright daylight; then, the love of seclusion was bestowed upon him. He used to go in seclusion in the cave of Hira where he used to worship Allah continuously for many days until he desired to see his family. He would take with him food for the stay and then come back to his wife Khadija to take his food again, until suddenly the truth descended upon him while he was in the cave of Hira.

The angel came to him and asked him to read. The Prophet replied, “I do not know how to read.” The Prophet added, “The angel caught me and pressed me so hard that I could not bear it any more. He then released me and again asked me to read and I replied: I do not know how to read; thereupon he caught me again and pressed me a second time until I could not bear it any more. He then released me and again asked me to read but I replied: I do not know how to read; thereupon he caught me for the third time and pressed me, and then released me and said: Read in the name of your Lord, who has created everything, who has created man from a clot. Read! And your Lord is the Most Generous, Who taught by the pen, taught man which he knew not.” Quran (96:1-5)

بِسۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
اِقۡرَاۡ بِاسۡمِ رَبِّكَ الَّذِىۡ خَلَقَ‌ۚ‏ ﴿۱﴾  خَلَقَ الۡاِنۡسَانَ مِنۡ عَلَقٍ‌ۚ‏ ﴿۲﴾  اِقۡرَاۡ وَرَبُّكَ الۡاَكۡرَمُۙ‏ ﴿۳﴾  الَّذِىۡ عَلَّمَ بِالۡقَلَمِۙ‏ ﴿۴﴾  عَلَّمَ الۡاِنۡسَانَ مَا لَمۡ يَعۡلَمۡؕ‏ ﴿۵﴾

Ibn Hishaam from Ibn Ishaaq narrated: …..then I went out (of the cave) and when I was midway on the mountain, I heard a voice from heaven saying, “O Muhammad, you are the Messenger of Allah, and I am Jibreel.” I raised my head to look up at the sky, and I saw Jibreel in the form of a man standing astride the horizon, saying, “O Muhammad, you are the Messenger of Allah and I am Jibreel.” So I stood and looked at him, moving neither forward nor backward, then I began to turn my face away from him, but wherever I looked I saw him there on the horizon. I continued to stand there, neither advancing nor turning back…..

Then Allah’s Apostle returned with the Inspiration and with his heart beating severely. He went to Khadija bint Khuwailid and said, “Cover me! Cover me!” They covered him until his fear subsided and then he told her everything that happened and he said, “I fear that something may happen to me.” Khadija replied, “Never! By Allah, Allah will never disgrace you. You keep good relations with your family, you help the poor and the destitute, you serve your guests generously, and you assist those afflicted by calamities.”

Khadija then accompanied him to her cousin Waraqa “Listen to the story of your nephew, O my cousin!” Waraqa asked, “O my nephew, what have you seen?” The Prophet described whatever he had seen. Waraqa said, “This is the same one who keeps the secrets whom Allah had sent to Moses. I wish I were young and could live up to the time when your people would turn you out.” The Prophet asked, “Will they drive me out?” Waraqa replied, “Yes, anyone who came with something similar to what you have brought was treated with hostility; and if I should remain until till the day when you will be turned out then I would strongly support you.” But after a few days Waraqa died and the revelation was paused for a while.

Source: Sahih Bukhari 4, Sahih Muslim 160

Grade: Muttafaqun Alayhi (authentic) according to Al-Bukhari and Muslim

The first person to believe in Muhammad’s ﷺ message and enter Islam was his wife Khadeejah followed by his cousin Ali ibn Abi Talib (RA) who was ten years old and lived in the prophet’s house. They were followed by Zayd ibn Haarith (RA) and the Prophets best friend Abu Bakr as –Siddeeq (RA). The first slave to become Muslim was Bilaal ibn Rabaah al Habashi (RA), an Abyssinian who was severely tortured by his master after he became Muslim. Muhammad ﷺ ordered that he be ransomed and set free.

After the first message thus received, revelation ceased for a certain period (called fatra). The Prophet Muhammad ﷺ was very saddened and grieved and thought that Allah had forsaken him, then one day some time later, the revelation resumed:

Jabir ibn Abdullah reported: Concerning the pause in revelation, the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said, “While I was walking, all of a sudden I heard a voice from the sky. I looked up and saw the same angel who had visited me at the cave of Hira sitting on a chair between the sky and the earth. I became afraid of him and I came back home and I said, Wrap me! Then Allah revealed the verse:

بِسۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
يٰۤاَيُّهَا الۡمُدَّثِّرُۙ‏ ﴿۱﴾  قُمۡ فَاَنۡذِرۡ‏ ﴿۲﴾  وَرَبَّكَ فَكَبِّرۡ‏ ﴿۳﴾  وَثِيَابَكَ فَطَهِّرۡ‏ ﴿۴﴾  وَالرُّجۡزَ فَاهۡجُرۡ‏ ﴿۵﴾ 

The prophet Muhammad ﷺ was for the first time commanded to arise and warn people of the consequences of their ways worshipping Idols and magnifying that which has no right. 

Muhaamad ﷺ started to call to Islam those he knew to be mature trusting. This was done in secret until their number reached approximately 30 and Muhammad ﷺ was commanded by Allah to openly convey the message.

بِسۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ

   فَاصۡدَعۡ بِمَا تُؤۡمَرُ وَ اَعۡرِضۡ عَنِ الۡمُشۡرِكِيۡنَ‏ ﴿۹۴﴾

“Then declare what you are commanded and turn away from Polytheists.” (Quran 15:94)

The Messenger ﷺ of Allah used to meet with the believers in secrete at the house of Al-Arkam who also became Muslim. The messenger ﷺ of Allah used to recite the verses of the Quran to them and teach them the laws and rulings of Islam that was revealed to that point.

Three years passed and one day Jibreel came to the Prophet ﷺ and ordered him to start preaching openly to everyone. So the Prophet ﷺ told the people of Mecca that he had something very important to tell them. He stood on a hillside in Mecca, called Safa, and they gathered around to hear what he had to say. He started by asking them if they would believe him were he to say that an army was about to attack them. They answered that indeed they would, because he never lied. He then told them that he was the Messenger ﷺ of Allah, sent to show them the right way, and to warn them of terrible punishments if they did not follow him in worshipping only Allah and give up Idol worship. He told them about paradise and about the hell fire. Abu Lahab, one of the Prophet’s ﷺ uncles who was among the listeners, suddenly stood up and said, ‘May you perish! Did you call us here just to tell us this?’ At this, Allah sent to the Prophet (pbuh) the following Surah:

بِسۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
تَبَّتۡ يَدَاۤ اَبِىۡ لَهَبٍ وَّتَبَّؕ‏ ﴿۱﴾  مَاۤ اَغۡنٰى عَنۡهُ مَالُهٗ وَمَا كَسَبَؕ‏ ﴿۲﴾  سَيَصۡلٰى نَارًا ذَاتَ لَهَبٍ ۖۚ‏ ﴿۳﴾  وَّامۡرَاَ تُهٗ ؕ حَمَّالَةَ الۡحَطَبِ‌ۚ‏ ﴿۴﴾  فِىۡ جِيۡدِهَا حَبۡلٌ مِّنۡ مَّسَدٍ‏ ﴿۵﴾ 

In the Name of Allah, The beneficent, The merciful.

 “May the hands of Abu Lahab be ruined, and ruined is he, His wealth will not avail him or that which he gained, He will [enter to] burn in a Fire of [blazing] flame, And his wife [as well] – the carrier of firewood, Around her neck is a rope of [twisted] fiber.” (Quran 111:1-5)

Quraysh saw how slowly people started to follow the Muhammad ﷺ and their number increased as he told people that it was a grave sin to worship idols instead of Allah and this would only lead to their destruction. This angered the leaders of Quraysh and they wanted to kill Muhammad ﷺ from turning the people away from the worship of their Gods but Muhammad’s ﷺ uncle Abu Talib being one of the chiefs of Quraysh with strong influence protected Muhammad ﷺ. Hew new the message of his nephew was the truth but he could not abandon the religion of his forefathers.  

Abu Talib went to his nephew and asked him to tone down his message to avoid further trouble. The mushrikeen (those who reject truth and worship others over Allah) started to persecute and torture the Muslims that they must believe in their idols and denounce the worship of Allah to the extent that many had died.

When the Messenger ﷺ of Allah saw the mushrikeen would not persist in persecuting his companions he said to a group of them;

“Why do you not leave and go to Abyssinia, for in that land there is a king under whom no one is mistreated, until Allah grants you a way out from the difficulties you are facing”

The mushrikeen were furious when they discovered that these Muslims had secretly left the city for among them were the sons and daughters of many of the leading families of Mecca. The anger of the mushirkeen was even greater when they found out that the Muslims had been warmly welcomed in Abyssinia (today known as Ethiopia). The leaders of Quraysh decided to send two men to the Abyssinian king in hopes of persuading him to send the Muslims back. These were ‘Amr ibn al-‘As, a very clever speaker, and „Abd Allah ibn abi Rabi‟ah. Before they met this king, they gave each of his advisers a gift, saying: ‘Some foolish men from our people have come to hide in your country.

Our leaders have sent us to your ruler to persuade him to send them back, so when we speak to the king about them, do advise him to give them up to us.’ The advisers agreed to do what the Meccans wished. Amr ibn al-‘As and ‘Abd Allah ibn abi Rabi’ah then went to the king and presented him also with a gift, saying: ‘Your Highness, these people have abandoned the religion we have always followed in Mecca, but they have not even become Christians like you.’ The royal advisers, who were also present, told the king that the mushrikeen had spoken the truth and that he should send the Muslims back to their own people.

At this, the king became angry and said, ‘No, by God, I will not give them up. Those who have come to ask for my protection, settled in my country, and chosen me rather than others, shall not be betrayed. I will summon them and ask them about what these two men have said. If the Muslims are as the mushrikeen say, I will give them up and send them back to their own people, but if the Meccans have lied I will protect the Muslims.’

‘Amr was very upset by this for the last thing he wanted was for the king to hear what the Muslims had to say. The king then sent for the Muslims. When they entered, they did not kneel before him as was the custom of the Abyssinians. ‘Why do you not kneel before our king?’ they were asked by one of the advisors. ‘We kneel only to Allah’, they replied. So the king asked them to tell him about their religion. Ja’far ibn abi Talib, Ali’s brother and a cousin of the Prophet (pbuh), was chosen to speak for the Muslims.

He replied, ‘O King, at first we were among the ignorant. We and our ancestors had turned from the faith of Abraham, who, with Ishmael, rebuilt the Ka‟bah and worshipped only Allah. We used idols in our worship of Allah; we ate meat that had not been killed in the right way; we did not respect the rights of our neighbors; the strong took advantage of the weak. We did terrible things of which I dare not speak. This was our life until Allah sent a Messenger from among us, one of our relatives, whom we have always known to be honest, innocent, and faithful. He asked us to worship only Allah, and to give up the bad customs of our forefathers. He asked us to be truthful and trustworthy, to respect and help our neighbors, to honor our families, and to put a stop to our bad deeds and endless fighting. He asked us to look after orphans. He ordered us not to slander or speak evil of women or men. He ordered us to worship Allah alone and not to worship anyone or anything else alongside Him. He ordered us to pray, to give alms, and to fast. We believe he is right and therefore we follow him and do as he has commanded us. The Meccans began to attack us and come between us and our religion. So we had to leave our homes and we have come to you, hoping to find justice.’

The king, who was a Christian, was moved by these words. „Amr had to think quickly of a way to win the argument. Cunningly he said to the king, ‘These people do not believe in Jesus in the same way as you’. The king then wanted to know what the Prophet (pbuh) had said about Jesus. Ja’far replied by reciting a Surah from the Qur’an which tells the story of Jesus and his mother Mary. These are a few of the lines he recited:

بِسۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
وَلَـقَدۡ جَعَلۡنَا فِى السَّمَآءِ بُرُوۡجًا وَّزَيَّـنّٰهَا لِلنّٰظِرِيۡنَۙ‏ ﴿۱۶﴾  وَحَفِظۡنٰهَا مِنۡ كُلِّ شَيۡطٰنٍ رَّجِيۡمٍۙ‏ ﴿۱۷﴾  اِلَّا مَنِ اسۡتَرَقَ السَّمۡعَ فَاَ تۡبَعَهٗ شِهَابٌ مُّبِيۡنٌ‏ ﴿۱۸﴾  وَالۡاَرۡضَ مَدَدۡنٰهَا وَاَلۡقَيۡنَا فِيۡهَا رَوَاسِىَ وَاَنۡۢبَتۡنَا فِيۡهَا مِنۡ كُلِّ شَىۡءٍ مَّوۡزُوۡنٍ‏ ﴿۱۹﴾  وَجَعَلۡنَا لَـكُمۡ فِيۡهَا مَعَايِشَ وَمَنۡ لَّسۡتُمۡ لَهٗ بِرٰزِقِيۡنَ‏ ﴿۲۰﴾  وَاِنۡ مِّنۡ شَىۡءٍ اِلَّا عِنۡدَنَا خَزَآٮِٕنُهٗ وَمَا نُنَزِّلُهٗۤ اِلَّا بِقَدَرٍ مَّعۡلُوۡمٍ‏ ﴿۲۱﴾  ‌وَاَرۡسَلۡنَا الرِّيٰحَ لَوَاقِحَ فَاَنۡزَلۡنَا مِنَ السَّمَآءِ مَآءً فَاَسۡقَيۡنٰكُمُوۡهُ‌ۚ وَمَاۤ اَنۡتُمۡ لَهٗ بِخٰزِنِيۡنَ‏ ﴿۲۲﴾  وَ اِنَّا لَــنَحۡنُ نُحۡىٖ وَنُمِيۡتُ وَنَحۡنُ الۡوٰرِثُوۡنَ‏ ﴿۲۳﴾  وَلَـقَدۡ عَلِمۡنَا الۡمُسۡتَقۡدِمِيۡنَ مِنۡكُمۡ وَلَـقَدۡ عَلِمۡنَا الۡمُسۡتَـاْخِرِيۡنَ‏ ﴿۲۴﴾  وَاِنَّ رَبَّكَ هُوَ يَحۡشُرُهُمۡ‌ؕ اِنَّهٗ حَكِيۡمٌ عَلِيۡمٌ‏ ﴿۲۵﴾  وَلَـقَدۡ خَلَقۡنَا الۡاِنۡسَانَ مِنۡ صَلۡصَالٍ مِّنۡ حَمَاٍ مَّسۡنُوۡنٍ‌ۚ‏ ﴿۲۶﴾  وَالۡجَـآنَّ خَلَقۡنٰهُ مِنۡ قَبۡلُ مِنۡ نَّارِ السَّمُوۡمِ‏ ﴿۲۷﴾  وَاِذۡ قَالَ رَبُّكَ لِلۡمَلٰۤٮِٕكَةِ اِنِّىۡ خَالـِقٌۢ بَشَرًا مِّنۡ صَلۡصَالٍ مِّنۡ حَمَاٍ مَّسۡنُوۡنٍ‏ ﴿۲۸﴾  فَاِذَا سَوَّيۡتُهٗ وَنَفَخۡتُ فِيۡهِ مِنۡ رُّوۡحِىۡ فَقَعُوۡا لَهٗ سٰجِدِيۡنَ‏ ﴿۲۹﴾  فَسَجَدَ الۡمَلٰۤٮِٕكَةُ كُلُّهُمۡ اَجۡمَعُوۡنَۙ‏ ﴿۳۰﴾  اِلَّاۤ اِبۡلِيۡسَؕ اَبٰٓى اَنۡ يَّكُوۡنَ مَعَ السّٰجِدِيۡنَ‏ ﴿۳۱﴾  قَالَ يٰۤاِبۡلِيۡسُ مَا لَـكَ اَلَّا تَكُوۡنَ مَعَ السّٰجِدِيۡنَ‏ ﴿۳۲﴾  قَالَ لَمۡ اَكُنۡ لِّاَسۡجُدَ لِبَشَرٍ خَلَقۡتَهٗ مِنۡ صَلۡصَالٍ مِّنۡ حَمَاٍ مَّسۡنُوۡنٍ‏ ﴿۳۳﴾  

In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

“And mention, [O Muhammad], in the Book [the story of] Mary, when she withdrew from her family to a place toward the east, And she took, in seclusion from them, a screen. Then We sent to her Our Angel, and he represented himself to her as a well-proportioned man, She said, “Indeed, I seek refuge in the Most Merciful from you, [so leave me], if you should be fearing of Allah”, He said, “I am only the messenger of your Lord to give you [news of] a pure boy”, She said, “How can I have a boy while no man has touched me and I have not been unchaste?”, He said, “Thus [it will be]; your Lord says, ‘It is easy for Me, and We will make him a sign to the people and a mercy from Us. And it is a matter [already] decreed’.”, So she conceived him, and she withdrew with him to a remote place, And the pains of childbirth drove her to the trunk of a palm tree. She said, “Oh, I wish I had died before this and was in oblivion, forgotten.”, But he called her from below her, “Do not grieve; your Lord has provided beneath you a stream, And shake toward you the trunk of the palm tree; it will drop upon you ripe, fresh dates, So eat and drink and be contented. And if you see from among humanity anyone, say, ‘Indeed, I have vowed to the Most Merciful abstention, so I will not speak today to [any] man’.”, Then she brought him to her people, carrying him. They said, “O Mary, you have certainly done a thing unprecedented, O sister of Aaron, your father was not a man of evil, nor was your mother unchaste.”, So she pointed to him. They said, “How can we speak to one who is in the cradle a child?”, [Jesus] said, “Indeed, I am the servant of Allah . He has given me the Scripture and made me a prophet, And He has made me blessed wherever I am and has enjoined upon me prayer and zakah as long as I remain alive, And [made me] dutiful to my mother, and He has not made me a wretched tyrant, And peace is on me the day I was born and the day I will die and the day I am raised alive.” Quran (15:16-33)

 When the king heard this, his eyes filled with tears. Turning to his advisers, he said, ‘These words have surely come from God; there is very little to separate the Muslims from the Christians. What both Jesus and Muhammad, the Messengers of Allah, have brought comes from the same source.

The king turned to Amr and said; “not for all the gold in the world will I give them up”

So the Muslims were given the king’s permission to live peacefully in his country. ‘Amr was given back the gift he had presented to the king and the two Meccans returned home, bitterly disappointed.

A Victory for Islam Amidst the Persecution of Muslims

 The leaders of Quraysh became increasingly worried about the way the people of Mecca were being divided by the Prophet’s ﷺ teachings. Finally, Umar ibn al-Khattab, one of the nobles of Mecca and being one that was dedicated to his worship and amongst the strongest the Meccans, decided that the only way to silence the Prophet ﷺ was to kill him. Having made up his mind, he set out at once to look for him. On his way he met a man who saw at once what „Umar was going to do and said: ‘Why don’t you look a little closer to home before going to kill Muhammad? Don’t you know your own sister Fatimah is a Muslim?’ ‘Umar was shocked. He could not believe this was true. He went at once to his sister’s house. When he arrived outside the house he heard Fatimah and her husband Sa‟id reading aloud surah Ta Ha, a chapter from the Qur’an. Hearing her brother’s voice at the door, Fatimah quickly hid the scroll with the surah written on it among the folds of her dress. „Umar stormed into the room and demanded, ‘What is this nonsense I heard?’ Fatimah denied everything. Umar then lost his temper and attacked Fatimah’s husband shouting,

‘They tell me that you have joined Muhammad in his religion!’ Fatimah tried to defend her husband and „Umar struck her blow that broke the skin. Then she admitted, Yes, we are Muslims and we believe in Allah and His Messenger and you can do what you like!’ Seeing the blood on her head, „Umar suddenly felt sorry for what he had done and said to his sister, ‘Let me see what I heard you reading just now so that I may understand just what it is that your Prophet has brought. Fatimah gave the scroll to him after he had washed to make himself clean and pure before touching it, and had promised to give it back to her afterwards.

بِسۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
طٰهٰ‌ ۚ‏ ﴿۱﴾  مَاۤ اَنۡزَلۡـنَا عَلَيۡكَ الۡـقُرۡاٰنَ لِتَشۡقٰٓى ۙ‏ ﴿۲﴾  اِلَّا تَذۡكِرَةً لِّمَنۡ يَّخۡشٰى ۙ‏ ﴿۳﴾  تَنۡزِيۡلًا مِّمَّنۡ خَلَقَ الۡاَرۡضَ وَالسَّمٰوٰتِ الۡعُلَى ؕ‏ ﴿۴﴾  اَلرَّحۡمٰنُ عَلَى الۡعَرۡشِ اسۡتَوٰى‏ ﴿۵﴾  لَهٗ مَا فِى السَّمٰوٰتِ وَمَا فِى الۡاَرۡضِ وَمَا بَيۡنَهُمَا وَمَا تَحۡتَ الثَّرٰى‏ ﴿۶﴾  وَاِنۡ تَجۡهَرۡ بِالۡقَوۡلِ فَاِنَّهٗ يَعۡلَمُ السِّرَّ وَاَخۡفٰى‏ ﴿۷﴾  اَللّٰهُ لَاۤ اِلٰهَ اِلَّا هُوَ ‌ؕ لَـهُ الۡاَسۡمَآءُ الۡحُسۡنٰى‏ ﴿۸﴾ 

In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

 “Ta Ha We have not revealed unto thee (Muhammad) this Qur’an For thee to be distressed, but only as a reminder Unto him who fears a Revelation from Him who created the earth and the high heavens; the Beneficent One Who is established on the Throne; To Him belongs Whatsoever is in the heavens and the earth And all that is between them, and All that is underneath the soil. If Thou speakest aloud Be thou loud in thy speech, yet Surely He knows the secret (thought) And that yet more hidden. Allah There is no god but He To Him belong the Most Beautiful Names”. (Qur’an 20: 1-8).

As he read, ‘Umar suddenly knew that these were the most beautiful words he had ever heard and that this religion must be the true one. With his sword still in hand, he went straight to the Prophet’s house and knocked loudly at the door. One of the Prophet’s closest followers looked out. There stood ‘Umar who was known for his courage and strength. When he saw ‘Umar so excited and with his sword in hand, he was afraid for the Prophet’s ﷺ life. But the Prophet ﷺ asked him to allow ‘Umar to come in and to leave them alone together. The Prophet ﷺ asked ‘Umar why he had come, to which he replied: ‘I have come to swear that there is no god but Allah and that you, Muhammad ﷺ, are the Messenger of Allah.’ As he spoke these words, his hand still held the sword with which he had intended to kill the Prophet ﷺ. This same sword’ would now be used to defend the Prophet ﷺ and the faith of Islam. At that time, whenever Muslims wanted to perform the ritual encircling of the Ka’bah, known as tawaf they had to do it secretly and in fear. ‘Umar, however, was very courageous. As soon as he had declared his faith, he went directly to the Ka’bah and in broad daylight made the circling of the Sacred House before the astonished people of Mecca. No one dared to say anything. But now the leaders of Quraysh became even more alarmed and began to see Islam as a threat to the whole life of the city of Mecca.

They sent Abu Talib with a proposal that they would make him king, give him wealth and whatever he desired but the Prophet ﷺ replied (to his uncle), 

“Even if they place the sun in my right-hand, and the moon in my left-hand in return for giving up this matter (Dawah to Islam), I will never stop – until; – either Allah makes it (the religion of Allah) triumph or I die defending it.” [As-Seerah an-Nabaweyyah, Ibn Hisham (vol.1, p.265-266)]

The Year of Sorrow

Abu Talib, the prophet’s ﷺ paternal uncle died in the 10th year of his mission. Abu Talib was a stronger protector and defender of the messenger of Allah. Up to this point Quraysh could not touch the prophet ﷺ due to their respect for Abu Talib. The messenger of Allah ﷺ was grieved at his death as he loved his uncle dearly who always protected him. He also longed that his uncle would enter Islam and utter the words on his death bed but he did not in fear that his people would speak ill of him.

It was not long after the death of Abu Talib when the messenger ﷺ of Allah’s wife Khadijah became ill and she also passed away. Khadijah was not only the messenger ﷺ of Allah’s wife but his closest friend and the one who always console him during the persecution by Quraysh. This year was known as the year of Grief.

The persecution of the messenger ﷺ of Allah intensified after the death of Abu Talib and his wife Khadijah and the messenger of Allah went Ta’if hope the tribe of Thaqeef would listen to him. Muhammad was received by the three chiefs of the local tribes of Ta’if and they let him freely have his say, however, they paid little heed to his message. After a while they even showed signs of apprehension lest his welcome in Ta’if might embroil them with the Meccans, so they left him to be dealt with by street urchins and the riff raff of the town.

Muhammad ﷺ and Zayd was stoned by the children of Ta’if to leave the city while the crowds mocked jeered. Both were wounded and bleeding as they left Ta’if behind them. Muhammad ﷺ bled so profusely from the stoning that his feet became clotted to his shoes.

Once Muhammad ﷺ and Zayd were outside the city walls, Muhammad almost collapsed.  They went a short distance outside of the town and stopped in a vineyard that belonged to two Meccans who were there at the time.

The owners of the vineyard had seen Muhammad ﷺ been persecuted in Mecca and on this occasion they felt some sympathy toward their fellow townsman. He took Muhammad ﷺ into his hut, dressed his wounds, and let him rest and recuperate until he felt strong enough to resume his journey across the rough terrain between Ta’if and Mecca.  It was there that the angel Gabriel came to him with the angel of mountains and said that if Muhammad ﷺ wanted he would blow the mountains over the people of Ta’if.

After going through such hardship and torment by the people of Taif, the Noble Prophet ﷺ turned to our Lord and Creator and said:

“To You, my Lord, I complain of my weakness, lack of support and the humiliation I am made to receive. Most Compassionate and Merciful!
You are the Lord of the weak, and you are my Lord.
To whom do You leave me? To a distant person who receives me with hostility? Or to an enemy You have given power over me? As long as you are not displeased with me, I do not care what I face. I would, however,
be much happier with Your mercy. I seek refuge in the light of Your face by which all darkness is dispelled and both this life and the life to come are put in their right course against incurring your wrath or being the subject of your anger. To You I submit, until I earn Your pleasure. Everything is powerless without your support.”

Aisha reported: She asked the Prophet, “Have you encountered a day harder than the battle of Uhud?” The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said, “Your tribes have troubled very much, and the worst was the day of Aqaba when I presented myself to Ibn Abd Yalail ibn Abd Kulal and he did not respond to what I intended. I departed, overwhelmed with excessive sorrow, and I could not relax until I found myself at a tree where I lifted my head towards the sky to see a cloud shading me. I looked up and saw Gabriel in it. He called me saying: Allah has heard your people’s saying to you and how they have replied, and Allah has sent the Angel of the Mountains to you that you may order him to do whatever you wish to these people. The Angel of the Mountains greeted me and he said: O Muhammad, order what you wish, and if you like, I will let the mountains fall on them.” The Prophet said, “No, rather I hope that Allah will bring from their descendants people who will worship Allah alone without associating partners with him.”

Source: Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī 3059, Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim 1759

Grade: Muttafaqun Alayhi (authenticity agreed upon) according to Al-Bukhari and Muslim

This Hadith also reflects the marvelous character of Messenger of Allah ﷺ that he never rebuked the ignorant and those who caused him harm, nor did he ever avenge anybody on grounds of personal hostility. Secondly, he ﷺ would endure all forms of hardships in the way of Allah with patience and endurance. He ﷺ never became furious over his harassers, rather he prayed for their guidance.

 

The Isra wal Miraj (The Night Journey)

During the same period Allah bestowed upon the prophet Muhammad ﷺ the miracle of the Isra and Miraj (the night journey and ascent into heaven). Allah decided to lift the morale of His Messenger ﷺ and to show him some aspects of His Dominium in the Heavens and the Earth after these calamities and disappointments. His journey, known in history as Miraj (Ascension), was in real body and soul.

It was one of the greatest events in the Mission of the Messenger ﷺ of Allah and in the history of Islam. The night journey was important for two reasons;

The Isra which was the miraculous journey from Makah to Al Aqsa mosque in Jerusalem was part for the Meccans who would not believe in the prophet’s message and had previously asked that he show them a miracle as other prophets has done.

The Miraj which was not told to the Meccans was a test for the Muslims to believe in the unseen and the power of Allah.

The non-believers ridiculed him for the story and used it in their arguments against him, calling him a liar and a crazy man. However, the Night Journey was a glad tiding for the believers, whose faith was reinforced by hearing about it.

It was at this time that Allah ordered the Muslims to pray the five daily prayers.  Almighty Allah has said:

بِسۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
سُبۡحٰنَ الَّذِىۡۤ اَسۡرٰى بِعَبۡدِهٖ لَيۡلًا مِّنَ الۡمَسۡجِدِ الۡحَـرَامِ اِلَى الۡمَسۡجِدِ الۡاَقۡصَا الَّذِىۡ بٰرَكۡنَا حَوۡلَهٗ لِنُرِيَهٗ مِنۡ اٰيٰتِنَا‌ ؕ اِنَّهٗ هُوَ السَّمِيۡعُ الۡبَصِيۡرُ‏ ﴿۱﴾ 

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

“Exalted is He (Allah) who took His Servant (Muhammad) by night from al-Masjid al-Haram to al-Masjid al- Aqsa, whose surroundings We have blessed, to show him of Our signs. Indeed, He is the Hearing, the Seeing.” Quran 17: 1

The verse starts by exalting, glorifying Allah as the one who took his servant from the Masjid in Makkah to the Masjid al-Aqsa in Jerusalem. The Arabic word                                                              

Lay-lan means a part of the night. Here Allah is telling us that He (Allah) being the all-powerful has taken his servant Muhammad in just a short space of time from the mosque in Makkah to al-Aqsa 80 camel days from Makkah.

The renowned ‘Hadith collector, Al-Bukhari, reported the Hadith of the “Night Journey and Ascent,” in his great work, Sa’hee’h Al-Bukhari, as follows:

Hudba Bin Khalid narrated from Humam Bin Ya’hya, who narrated from Qutada, who narrated from Anas Bin Malik Bin Sa’asa’ah, may Allah be pleased with all of them, that the Messenger of Allah ﷺ told them the following about his Night Journey and Ascent:

“While I was laying down in Al-‘Hateem (or Al-‘Hijr), near Al-Ka’aba, an (angel) came and made a (vertical) cut in my body between the neck and the pubic hair area. Then, he brought a golden pot of zam-zam, with which he washed my heart. Then, he put my heart back in its place.

Then, an animal larger than a donkey and smaller than a mule was brought to me to ride. That was Al-Buraq (the Lightening-Speed Animal that travelled at multiple speeds of light by the power of Allah), whose hoof reaches what his eye can see. It took me to Baytul Maqdis (Al-Aqsa Mosque in Al-Quds, Jerusalem), where I tied its leach where previous Prophets tied it. Then, I entered (the Mosque), prayed, and went out.

Jibril (Gabriel) came to me with two pots of wine and milk. When I chose the milk, he said, “You chose the natural inclination (of goodness).”

Then, Jibril (Gabriel) took me in ascent to the Near (First) Heaven (using M’iraj, a ladder-like device that moves lamely).

He (Jibril) asked for the (First Heaven) gate to be opened.

He was replied to (by an angel) with: “Who is this?”

He said: “Jibril.”

It was said: “And who is with you?”

He said: “Muhammed.”

It was said: “Has he been sent for?”

He said: “Yes.”

It was said: “He is welcome, in this good coming.”

And the gate was opened.

When I entered, there was Adam. (Jibril) said: “This is your father Adam, greet him.”

I did and he returned the greeting, saying:

“Welcome, the good son and the good Prophet.”

Then, while in the First Heaven, Jibril showed the Messenger ﷺ of Allah several illustrations of sins and sinners, as an educational experience. He also showed him parts of Paradise and Hell, which will be attached as a second part of the ‘Hadith below.

Then, (Jibril) ascended me to the Second Heaven (where he asked the gate keepers to open the gate, with their replies as what happened before opening the gate of the First Heaven).

When I entered, there were the cousins Ya’hya and ‘Eissa (John and Jesus).

Jibril said: “These are Ya’hya (John) and Eissa (Jesus), greet them.”

I did and they returned the greeting, saying:

“Welcome, the good brother and the good Prophet.”

Then, (Jibril) ascended me to the Third Heaven (where he asked the gate keepers to open the gate, with their replies as with the first gate of the First Heaven).

When I entered, there was Yousuf (Joseph).

Jibril said: “This is Yousuf, greet him.”

I did and he returned the greeting, saying:

“Welcome, the good brother and the good Prophet.”

Then, (Jibril) ascended me to the Fourth Heaven (where he asked the gate keepers to open the gate, with their replies as with their replies as with the first gate of the First Heaven).

When I entered, there was Idris (Akh-Nokh, Enoch).

Jibril said: “This is Idris, greet him.”

I did and he returned the greeting, saying:

“Welcome, the good brother and the good Prophet.”

Then, (Jibril) ascended me to the Fifth Heaven (where he asked the gate keepers to open the gate, with their replies as with their replies as with the first gate of the First Heaven).

When I entered, there was Haroon (Aaron).

Jibril said: “This is Haroon, greet him.”

I did and he returned the greeting, saying:

“Welcome, the good brother and the good Prophet.”

Then, (Jibril) ascended me to the Sixth Heaven (where he asked the gate keepers to open the gate, with their replies as with their replies as with the first gate of the First Heaven).

When I entered, there was Moussa (Moses).

Jibril said: “This is Moussa, greet him.”

I did, and he returned the greeting, saying:

“Welcome, the good brother and the good Prophet.” As I was leaving him, he cried.

When he was asked about what caused him to cry, he said:

“I am crying because a young man was sent after me, with more of his followers (Ummah) entering Paradise than of my followers.”

Then, (Jibril) ascended me to the Seventh Heaven (where he asked the gate keepers to open the gate, with their replies as with their replies as with the first gate of the First Heaven).

When I entered, there was Ibrahim (Abraham).

Jibril said: “This is Ibrahim, greet him.”

I did, and he returned the greeting, saying:

“Welcome, the good son and the good Prophet.”

***

Then, I was lifted to the Sidrat-ul-Muntaha (the Lote Tree of the utmost boundary), the size of its fruits was like that of water pots, its leaves were like the size of elephants’ ears.

(Jibril) said: This is the Sidrat-ul-Muntaha. Near it were four rivers, two could be seen and two were unseen.

I said: “What are these, Jibril?”

He said, the unseen rivers are those of Paradise.

The seen two (rivers) are the Nile and the Euphrates.

Then, Al-Baytul Ma’amour (The House of Continuous Worship of God by seventy thousand new angel’s everyday) was lifted to me (to see).

Then, (Jibril) brought me two pots with wine and milk.

When I took the milk, Jibril said: “It’s the natural inclination of goodness you chose for yourself and your followers (Ummah).”

At this point, Jibril could not proceed higher than the Sidrat-ul-Muntaha but the Messenger of Allah ﷺ did, receiving the greatest honor (any creature could have) of being in an audience with Allah.

The Companion Abu Dhar, may Allah be pleased with him, asked the Messenger ﷺ of Allah if he saw his Lord there.

He replied: “How can I see Him in Light?”

He also said: “I saw Light.”

(This Hadith was recorded by Muslim and reported by Bin Katheer).

***

Then (when I was in audience with Allah), prayer was ordained on me, fifty prayers every day. As I descended back, I passed by Moussa, who asked me about what I was ordained (to do).

I said, “I was commanded (to perform) fifty prayers every day.”

He said, “your Ummah (followers, community, nation) cannot perform fifty prayers everyday. By Allah, I had an experience with people before you, dealing with the Children of Israel, with the hardest of ways. Go back to your Lord and ask him a lighter ordinance for your Ummah.”

I went back (to my Lord) Who decreased the number of prayers by five. Then, as I descended back, I passed by Moussa, who said the same words. I went back (to my Lord) Who decreased the number of prayers by five. (The Prophet did that five times) I was (finally) commanded to perform five prayers everyday (which are equal to fifty in their weight, as rewards for good deeds will be multiplied ten times – Sahih Muslim).

(When the Prophet passed by Moussa the last time, and was advised to go back and ask his Lord for less number of prayers), he answered:

“I asked my Lord enough, I’m too shy now (to ask Him for more), I am content and I submit (to His will).

As I left (Moussa), I heard a call (from my Lord):

“I have decreed my command and made it light on my worshippers.”

(This part of the Hadith was recorded by Al-Bukhari and Muslim, and reported in Bin Katheer’s interpretation).

ذكر البخاري ، رحمه الله ، في صحيحه حديث المعراج ، قال:

حدثنا هُدبة بن خالد حدثنا همام بن يحيى حدثنا قتادة عن أنس بن مالك عن مالك بن صعصعة رضي الله عنهما أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم حدثهم ليلة أسري به قال:

“بينما أنا في الحطيم ـ وربما قال في الحجر ـ مضطجعاً ، إذ أتاني آت فقدَّ ـ قال: وسمعته يقول : فشقَّ ـ ما بين هذه إلى هذه – فقلت للجارود وهو إلى جنبي ما يعني به ؟ قال : من ثغرة نحره إلى شعرته ـ وسمعته يقول من قصته إلى شعرته.

فاستخرج قلبي ، ثم أُتيت بطست من ذهب مملوءَ ة إيماناً ، ففُل (أو فغسل) قلبي ، ثم حُشي ثم أُعيد.

ثم أُتِيت بِالْبُرَاقِ ، وَهُوَ دَابَّة أَبْيَض فَوْق الْحِمَار وَدُون الْبَغْل ، يَضَع حَافِره عِنْد مُنْتَهَى طَرَفه. فَرَكِبْته ، فَسَارَ بِي حَتَّى أَتَيْت بَيْت الْمَقْدِس. فَرَبَطْت الدَّابَّة بِالْحَلْقَةِ الَّتِي يَرْبِط فِيهَا الْأَنْبِيَاء ، ثُمَّ دَخَلْت ، فَصَلَّيْت فِيهِ رَكْعَتَيْنِ ، ثُمَّ خَرَجْت. فَأَتَانِي جِبْرِيل بِإِنَاءٍ مِنْ خَمْر وَإِنَاء مِنْ لَبَن ، فَاخْتَرْت اللَّبَن. فَقَالَ جِبْرِيل : أَصَبْت الْفِطْرَة. 

ثُمَّ عَرَجَ بِي جبريلُ إِلَى السَّمَاء الدُّنْيَا ، فاستفتح ، فقيل: من هذا ؟ قال جبريل . قيل: ومن معك ؟ قال: محمد. قيل: وقد أرسل إليه؟ قال: نعم . قيل مرحباً به ، فنعم المجيء جاء ، ففتح. فلما خلصت ، فإذا فيها آدم ، فقال هذا أبوك آدم ، فسلم عليه . فسلمت عليه ، فرد السلام ، ثم قال: مرحباً بالإبن الصالح والنبي الصالح.

ثم صعد بي حتى أتى السماء الثانية ، فاستفتح . قيل من هذا ؟ قال : جبريل. قيل: ومن معك ؟ قال : محمد . قيل : وقد أرسل إليه ؟ قال: نعم . قيل: مرحباً به ، فنعم المجيء جاء ، ففتح . فلما خلصت إذا يحيى وعيسى ، وهما ابنا خالة. قال : هذا يحيى وعيسى ، فسلم عليهما. فسلمت ، فردا ، ثم قالا : مرحباً بالأخ الصالح والنبي الصالح.

ثم صعد بي إلى السماء الثالثة ، فاستفتح. قيل من هذا ؟ قال: جبريل. قيل: ومن معك ؟ قال: محمد. قيل: وقد أرسل إليه ؟ قال: نعم . قيل: مرحباً به ، فنعم المجيء جاء ، ففتح . فلما خلصت إذا يوسف ، قال: هذا يوسف ، فسلم عليه ، فسلمت عليه ، فرد ثم قال: مرحباً بالأخ الصالح والنبي الصالح.

ثم صعد بي حتى أتى السماء الرابعة ، فاستفتح. قيل من هذا ؟ قال: جبريل قيل: ومن معك ؟ قال: محمد . قيل: أوقد أرسل إليه ؟ قال: نعم . قيل: مرحباً به ، فنعم المجيء جاء ، ففتح . فلما خلصت فإذا إدريس ، قال : هذا إدريس ، فسلم عليه. فسلمت عليه ، فرد ، ثم قال: مرحباً بالأخ الصالح والنبي الصالح.

ثم صعد بي حتى أتى السماء الخامسة فاستفتح. قيل من هذا ؟ قال : جبريل. قيل : ومن معك ؟ قال: محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم . قيل : وقد أرسل إليه ؟ قال: نعم . قيل : مرحباً به ، فنعم المجيء جاء ، ففتح . فلما خلصت فإذا هارون ، قال: هذا هارون ، فسلم عليه. فسلمت عليه ، فرد ، ثم قال: مرحباً بالأخ الصالح والنبي الصالح .

ثم صعد بي حتى أتى السماء السادسة ، فاستفتح. قيل من هذا ؟ قال: جبريل. قيل: ومن معك ؟ قال: محمد. قيل: وقد أرسل إليه ؟ قال: نعم. قيل: مرحباً به ، فنعم المجيء جاء ، ففتح . فلما خلصت فإذا موسى ، قال: هذا موسى فسلم عليه. فسلمت عليه ، فرد ، ثم قال: مرحباً بالأخ الصالح والنبي الصالح. فلما تجاوزت بكى ، قيل له ما يبكيك ؟ قال: أبكي لأن غلاماً بُعث بعدي يدخل الجنة من أمته أكثر ممن يدخلها من أمتي .

ثم صعد بي إلى السماء السابعة فاستفتح. قيل من هذا ؟ قال : جبريل قيل : ومن معك ؟ قال: محمد. قيل : وقد أرسل إليه ؟ قال: نعم. قيل: مرحباً به ، فنعم المجيء جاء. ففتح . فلما خلصت فإذا إبراهيم ، قال: هذا إبراهيم فسلم عليه ، فسلمت عليه ، فرد ثم قال: مرحباً بالإبن الصالح والنبي الصالح.

***

ثم رفعت إلي سدرة المنتهى. فإذا نبقها مثل قلال هَجَر وإذا ورقها مثل آذان الفيلة ، قال: هذه سدرة المنتهى ، وإذا أربعة أنهار: نهران بأطنان ، ونهران ظاهران ، فقلت: ما هذان يا جبريل ؟ قال: أما الباطنان فنهران في الجنة ، وأما الظاهران ، فالنيل والفرات.

ثم رُفع لي البيت المعمور (الذي يدخله كل يوم سبعون ألف ملك لا يعودون إليه – صحيح مسلم). ثم أُتيت بإناء من خمر وإناء من لبن وإناء من عسل. فأخذت اللبن ، فقال: هي الفطرة التي أُتيت عليها وأمتك .

 

وهنا تقدم رسولُ الله صلى اللهُ عليهِ وسلم ، حيث لم يتقدم جبريلُ معه. فقال أبو ذَرّ ، رضي الله عنه: يَا رَسُول اللَّه هَلْ رَأَيْت رَبّك ؟ قَالَ: “نورٌ أنَّى أراهُ.” أو قال: ” رَأَيْتُ نُورًا .” أَخْرَجَهُ مُسْلِم ، وأورده أبن كثير.

***

ثم فرضت علي الصلاة: خمسين صلاة كل يوم. فرجعت فمررت على موسى ، فقال: بما أمرت ؟ قال : أمرت بخمسين صلاة كل يوم ، قال: إن أمتك لا تستطيع خمسين صلاة كل يوم ، وإني والله قد جربت الناس قبلك ، وعالجت بني إسرائيل أشد المعالجة ، فارجع إلى ربك فاسأله التخفيف لأمتك.

فرجعت ، فوضع عني عشراً ، فرجعت إلى موسى ، فقال مثله . فرجعت فوضع عنى عشراً ، فرجعت إلى موسى ، فقال مثله. فرجعت فوضع عنى عشراً ، فرجعت إلى موسى ، فقال مثله. فرجعت فوضع عنى عشراً ، فرجعت إلى موسى فقال مثله. فرجعت فأمرت بعشر صلوات كل يوم ، فرجعت فقال مثله. فرجعت فأمرت بخمس صلوات كل يوم (تعادل خمسين لأن الحسنة بعشر أمثالها – صحيح مسلم) .

فرجعت إلى موسى فقال: بما أمرت ؟ قلت : بخمس صلوات كل يوم. قال : إن أمتك لا تستطيع خمس صلوات كل يوم ، وإني قد جربت الناس قبلك وعالجت بني إسرائيل أشد المعالجة. فأرجع إلى ربك فاسأله التخفيف لأمتك. قال: سألت ربي حتى استحييت ولكن أرضى وأسلم.

 قال: فلما جاوزت ناداني منادٍ : أمضيت فريضتي ، وخففت عن عبادي.” أَخْرَجَهُ البُخارِي ومُسْلِم ، وأورده أبن كثير. 

ثم عاد رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم إلى بيت المقدس ، ومنها إلى مكة المكرمة.

Telling People About the Night Journey

The Messenger ﷺ of Allah told the story of his Night Journey to the people of Makkah. People with strong faith believed him. However, some Muslims did not believe him and even left their new religion after hearing the story. Some nonbelievers used the story for more attacks on him. Others were sceptical but discussed it and asked him for evidence about its actual incidence.

Here are some reports from several narrators about people’s reactions after hearing the story, all of which are documented in the books of Seerah (biographies of the Prophet ﷺ and reported by the Holy Quran interpreters, with the Arabic texts and the English translations. 

The Companion Jabir Bin (son of) Abdullah, may Allah be pleased with both of them, said that he heard the Messenger ﷺ of Allah saying:

“When Quraysh (non-believers of Makkah) accused me of lying following my Night Journey to Baytul Maqdis (the Holey House in Al-Quds, Jerusalem), I went near Al-‘Hijr area (of Al-Ka’aba), where Allah showed me a view of Baytul Maqdis, allowing me to describe its features to them, while I am looking at it.”

وعَنْ عَائِشَة قَالَتْ: لَمَّا أُسْرِيَ بِرَسُولِ اللَّه ، صَلَّى اللَّه عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ، إِلَى الْمَسْجِد الْأَقْصَى ، أَصْبَحَ يُحَدِّث النَّاس بِذَلِكَ. فَارْتَدَّ نَاس مِمَّنْ كَانُوا آمَنُوا بِهِ وَصَدَّقُوهُ ، وَسَعَوْا بِذَلِكَ إِلَى أَبِي بَكْر ، فَقَالُوا: هَلْ لَك فِي صَاحِبك ؟ يَزْعُم أَنَّهُ أُسْرِيَ بِهِ اللَّيْلَة إِلَى بَيْت الْمَقْدِس.

فَقَالَ: أَوَقَالَ ذَلِكَ ؟ قَالُوا: نَعَمْ. قَالَ: لَئِنْ كَانَ قَالَ ذَلِكَ ، لَقَدْ صَدَقَ. قَالُوا: فَتُصَدِّقهُ أَنَّهُ ذَهَبَ اللَّيْلَة إِلَى بَيْت الْمَقْدِس وَجَاءَ قَبْل أَنْ يُصْبِح ؟ قَالَ: نَعَمْ ، إِنِّي لَأُصَدِّقهُ فِيمَا هُوَ أَبْعَد مِنْ ذَلِكَ ، أُصَدِّقهُ فِي خَبَر السَّمَاء ، فِي غَدْوَة أَوْ رَوْحَة ، فَلِذَلِكَ سُمِّيَ أَبُو بَكْر الصِّدِّيق  (رِوَايَة أُمّ هَانِئ بِنْت أَبِي طَالِب).

One of the Quraysh sceptics, Jubayr Bin Mut’im, said: O Muhammed! You shouldn’t have said what you said.

Another man said: O Muhammed! Have you passed by some camels of ours in such and such area?

The Messenger ﷺ of Allah replied: Yes, by Allah. I found them looking for a camel they lost. 

The man continued questioning: Have you passed by camels belonging to such and such people?

The Messenger ﷺ of Allah replied: Yes, and they had a red female camel which broke. I also saw a water pot, which I drank from.

They said: Then, tell us about how many camels and herders were there?

The Messenger ﷺ of Allah replied: I was too busy to count (the camels and herders).

(But Jibril, peace be to him, brought (a view of the camels and herders) to him, so he counted the camels and knew more about the herders. Then, he came back to the Quraysh people and said to them:

إِنِّي أَتَيْت الْبَارِحَة بَيْت الْمَقْدِس وَعُرِجَ بِي إِلَى السَّمَاء وَرَأَيْت كَذَا وَكَذَا. فَقَالَ أَبُو جَهْل يَعْنِي اِبْن هِشَام أَلَا تَعْجَبُونَ مِمَّا قَالَ مُحَمَّد ؟ يَزْعُم أَنَّهُ أَتَى الْبَارِحَة بَيْت الْمَقْدِس ثُمَّ أَصْبَحَ فِينَا وَأَحَدنَا يَضْرِب مَطِيَّته مُصْعِدَة شَهْرًا وَمُقْفِلَة شَهْرًا فَهَذِهِ مَسِيرَة شَهْرَيْنِ فِي لَيْلَة وَاحِدَة!

قَالَ: فَأَخْبَرْتهمْ بِعِيرٍ لِقُرَيْشٍ لَمَّا كُنْت فِي مَصْعَدِي ، رَأَيْتهَا فِي مَكَان كَذَا وَكَذَا ، وَأَنَّهَا نَفَرَتْ ، فَلَمَّا رَجَعْت وَجَدْتهَا عِنْد الْعَقَبَة. وَأَخْبَرَتهُمْ بِكُلِّ رَجُل وَبَعِيره  كَذَا وَكَذَا وَمَتَاعه كَذَا وَكَذَا.

I came to Baytul Maqdis yesterday, then I was taken in ascendance to the Heavens, and I saw such and such.

Then, Abu Jahl (Ibn Hisham) said (to the people): Aren’t you surprised of what Muhammed has said? He claims that he went to Baytul Maqdis yesterday then he came back before the morning!

(How can this be possible) when every one of us spends a month going and a month coming back riding his animal! (Do you believe him) in doing that in one night, when it takes us two months to do it?

(In reply, the Prophet) said:

I told them about the moving Quraysh (trade caravan of) camels, which I saw when I was going (to Baytul Maqdis), near such and such place. In my way back (from Baytul Maqdis), I saw them near Al-‘Aqaba (south Jordan today). I told them (with description) about every man, his camel, and his belongings.

فَجَاءَ ذَلِكَ الْمُشْرِك ، فَقَالَ: يَا مُحَمَّد ، أَنَا أَعْلَم النَّاس بِبَيْتِ الْمَقْدِس ، فَأَخْبِرْنِي كَيْف بِنَاؤُهُ ، وَكَيْف هَيْئَته ، وَكَيْف قُرْبه مِنْ الْجَبَل.

قَالَ: فَرُفِعَ لِرَسُولِ اللَّه صَلَّى اللَّه عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ بَيْت الْمَقْدِس مِنْ مَقْعَده ، فَنَظَرَ إِلَيْهِ كَنَظَرِ أَحَدنَا إِلَى بَيْته. قَالَ: بِنَاؤُهُ كَذَا وَكَذَا ، وَهَيْئَته كَذَا وَكَذَا ، وَقُرْبه مِنْ الْجَبَل كَذَا وَكَذَا. فَقَالَ الْآخَر: صَدَقْت. فَرَجَعَ إِلَيْهِمْ ، فَقَالَ: صَدَقَ مُحَمَّد فِيمَا قَالَ.

A man (from those who were skeptical) said: I’m the most knowledgeable among people (here) of Baytul Maqdis (the House of Holy in Al-Quds, Jerusalem), how it is built, its features, and its closeness from the mountain. I’ll let you know if Muhammed is telling the truth or he is lying.

That pagan man came and said: O Muhammed! I’m the most knowledgeable among people (here) of Baytul Maqdis. Tell me about how it is built, its features, and its closeness from the mountain.

(A view of) Baytul Maqdis was lifted up (by Jibril, peace be to him) to the Messenger of Allah while he was (sitting in) his place. He looked at it as everyone of us looks at his home. He described its building, its features, and its closeness from the mountain.

The (pagan) man said: You told the truth. He returned to them (to the crowd of skeptics) and said: Muhammed told the truth in what he said. 

فَقَعَدَ (صَلَّى اللَّه عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ) مُعْتَزِلًا حَزِينًا ، فَمَرَّ بِهِ عَدُوّ اللَّه أَبُو جَهْل ، فَجَاءَ حَتَّى جَلَسَ إِلَيْهِ ، فَقَالَ لَهُ كَالْمُسْتَهْزِئِ: هَلْ كَانَ مِنْ شَيْء ؟

فَقَالَ رَسُول اللَّه ، صَلَّى اللَّه عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: ” نَعَمْ.” قَالَ: وَمَا هُوَ؟ قَالَ: “إِنِّي أُسْرِيَ بِي اللَّيْلَة.” قَالَ: إِلَى أَيْنَ ؟ قَالَ: “إِلَى بَيْت الْمَقْدِس.” قَالَ: ثُمَّ أَصْبَحْت بَيْن ظَهْرَانَيْنَا؟ قَالَ: “نَعَمْ.” قَالَ: فَلَمْ يَرَ أَنْ يُكَذِّبهُ ، مَخَافَة أَنْ يَجْحَد الْحَدِيث ، إِنْ دَعَا قَوْمه إِلَيْهِ. فَقَالَ: أَرَأَيْت إِنْ دَعَوْت قَوْمك ، أَتُحَدِّثُهُمْ بِمَا حَدَّثْتنِي؟ فَقَالَ رَسُول اللَّه ، صَلَّى اللَّه عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: “نَعَمْ.”

فَقَالَ: يَا مَعْشَر بَنِي كَعْب بْن لُؤَيّ! قَالَ: فَانْفَضَّتْ إِلَيْهِ الْمَجَالِس ، وَجَاءُوا حَتَّى جَلَسُوا إِلَيْهِمَا. قَالَ: حَدِّثْ قَوْمك بِمَا حَدَّثْتنِي.

Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him and his faterh, said: The Messenger ﷺ of Allah said:

“After I had the Night Journey, I was in Makkah in the morning, and I knew that people would not believe me (when I tell them about it).

So, as the Messenger of Allah sat isolated and sad, the enemy of Allah (Abu Jahl) passed by him, came and sat beside him, and said sarcastically to him: “Was there anything (from heaven)?

The Messenger of Allah said: Yes.

(Abu Jahl) said: What is it?

The Messenger of Allah said: I was given a night journey.

(Abu Jahl) said: To where? 

The Messenger of Allah said: To Baytul Maqdis.

(Abu Jahl) said: Then you came back to be among us? 

The Messenger of Allah said: Yes.

(Abu Jahl) deciding not to belie him in order to encourage him to tell it to the people, he (cunningly) said: If I invite people over here, will you tell them what you have told me about? 

The Messenger of Allah said: Yes.

فَقَالَ رَسُول اللَّه ، صَلَّى اللَّه عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: ” إِنِّي أُسْرِيَ بِي اللَّيْلَة.”

فَقَالُوا: إِلَى أَيْنَ ؟ قَالَ: “إِلَى بَيْت الْمَقْدِس.” قَالُوا: ثُمَّ أَصْبَحْت بَيْن ظَهْرَانَيْنَا؟ قَالَ: “نَعَمْ.”

قَالَ: فَمِنْ بَيْن مُصَفِّق وَمِنْ بَيْن وَاضِع يَده عَلَى رَأْسه مُتَعَجِّبًا لِلْكَذِبِ.

The Messenger ﷺ of Allah said: I was given a night journey.

They said: To where? 

The Messenger ﷺ of Allah said: To Baytul Maqdis.

(Abu Jahl) said: Then you came back to be among us? 

The Messenger ﷺ of Allah said: Yes.

He said some of them clapped their hands, others put their hands on their heads, as gestures of disbelief.

قَالُوا: وَتَسْتَطِيع أَنْ تَنْعَت لَنَا الْمَسْجِد (وَفِيهِمْ مَنْ قَدْ سَافَرَ إِلَى ذَلِكَ الْبَلَد وَرَأَى الْمَسْجِد)؟

فَقَالَ رَسُول اللَّه ، صَلَّى اللَّه عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: “فَمَا زِلْت أَنْعَت حَتَّى اِلْتَبَسَ عَلَيَّ بَعْض النَّعْت.  

قَالَ: “فَجِيءَ بِالْمَسْجِدِ وَأَنَا أَنْظُر إِلَيْهِ ، حَتَّى وُضِعَ دُون دَار عُقَيْل أَوْ عِقَال ، فَنَعَتَهُ وَأَنَا أَنْظُر إِلَيْهِ.

قَالَ: “وَكَانَ مَعَ هَذَا نَعْت لَمْ أَحْفَظهُ.”

قَالَ: “فَقَالَ الْقَوْم: أَمَّا النَّعْت فَوَاَللَّهِ لَقَدْ أَصَابَ فِيهِ. “

They said: Can you describe the Mosque (as some of them travelled to Jerusalem before and saw its Mosque, Baytul Maqdis)?

The Messenger of Allah said:

I started describing it to them until I could no longer do that. Then, (Jibril, peace be to him) brought (a view of) the Mosque close to the (neighboring) house of ‘Uqayl. So, I resumed describing it while I was looking at it.

The Messenger of Allah added: The description included details that I no longer remember.

The people, then, said: Concerning the description (of Baytul Maqdis), by Allah, he told the truth about it.

The Mother of Believers (Wife of the Prophet) ‘Ayshah, may Allah be pleased with her, said that when the Messenger of Allah was enabled to travel the Night Journey to Al-Aqsa Mosque, he came out in the morning talking to people about it. Some people who used to believe in him turned back, becoming apostates.

They went to his Companion Abu Bakr, saying to him: What do you think of your Companion? He claims to have gone in a night journey to Baytul Maqdis!

Abu Bakr said (replying to them): Did he say that?

They said: Yes.

He said: If he said that, then he told the truth.

They said: Do you believe him in saying that he went last night to Baytul Maqdis and returned (to Makkah) before the morning?

He said: Yes, I believe him in what is farther than that. I believe him in what he said about heavens, in going (to them) and coming back.

That’s why Abu Bakr became known as Al-Siddiq (the one who believed in the Prophet’s report about his Night Journey).

(Narrated from Um Hani’ Bint Abi Talib, Mahajjah). 

فَقَامَ جُبَيْر بْن مُطْعِم فَقَالَ: يَا مُحَمَّد ، أَنْ لَوْ كُنْت لَك شَأْن كَمَا كُنْت مَا تَكَلَّمْت بِمَا تَكَلَّمْت بِهِ وَأَنْتَ بَيْن ظَهْرَانَيْنَا. فَقَالَ رَجُل مِنْ الْقَوْم: يَا مُحَمَّد هَلْ مَرَرْت بِإِبِلٍ لَنَا فِي مَكَان كَذَا وَكَذَا ؟ قَالَ: “نَعَمْ وَاَللَّه ، قَدْ وَجَدْتهمْ قَدْ أَضَلُّوا بَعِيرًا لَهُمْ ، فَهُمْ فِي طَلَبه.”

قَالَ: هَلْ مَرَرْت بِإِبِلٍ لِبَنِي فُلَان ؟ قَالَ: “نَعَمْ وَجَدْتهمْ فِي مَكَان كَذَا وَكَذَا ، وَقَدْ اِنْكَسَرَتْ لَهُمْ نَاقَة حَمْرَاء ، وَعِنْدهمْ قَصْعَة مِنْ مَاء ، فَشَرِبْت مَا فِيهَا.”

قَالُوا: فَأَخْبِرْنَا عِدَّتهَا ، وَمَا فِيهَا مِنْ الرُّعَاة. قَالَ: “قَدْ كُنْت عَنْ عِدَّتهَا مَشْغُولًا.” فَقَامَ ، فَأُوتِيَ بِالْإِبِلِ فَعَدَّهَا ، وَعَلِمَ مَا فِيهَا مِنْ الرُّعَاة ، ثُمَّ أَتَى قُرَيْشًا فَقَالَ لَهُمْ:

“سَأَلْتُمُونِي عَنْ إِبِل بَنِي فُلَان ، فَهِيَ كَذَا وَكَذَا ، وَفِيهَا مِنْ الرُّعَاة فُلَان وَفُلَان. وَسَأَلْتُمُونِي عَنْ إِبِل بَنِي فُلَان ، فَهِيَ كَذَا وَكَذَا ، وَفِيهَا مِنْ الرُّعَاة اِبْن أَبِي قُحَافَة وَفُلَان وَفُلَان ، وَهِيَ تُصَبِّحكُمْ بِالْغَدَاةِ عَلَى الثَّنِيَّة.”

قَالَ: فَقَعَدُوا عَلَى الثَّنِيَّة يَنْظُرُونَ أَصَدَقَهُمْ مَا قَالَ. فَاسْتَقْبَلُوا الْإِبِل ، فَسَأَلُوهُمْ هَلْ ضَلَّ لَكُمْ بَعِير؟ فَقَالُوا: نَعَمْ. فَسَأَلُوا الْآخَر: هَلْ اِنْكَسَرَتْ لَكُمْ نَاقَة حَمْرَاء؟ قَالُوا: نَعَمْ. قَالُوا فَهَلْ كَانَتْ عِنْدكُمْ قَصْعَة؟ قَالَ أَبُو بَكْر: أَنَا وَاَللَّه وَضَعْتهَا ، فَمَا شَرِبَهَا أَحَد ، وَلَا أَهْرَاقُوهُ فِي الْأَرْض. فَصَدَّقَهُ أَبُو بَكْر وَآمَنَ بِهِ ، فَسُمِّيَ يَوْمئِذٍ الصِّدِّيق . “

The Holy Quran further confirms what the Messenger of Allah has said about the night of Miraj was true.

بِسۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
وَالنَّجۡمِ اِذَا هَوٰىۙ‏ ﴿۱﴾  مَا ضَلَّ صَاحِبُكُمۡ وَمَا غَوٰى‌ۚ‏ ﴿۲﴾  وَمَا يَنۡطِقُ عَنِ الۡهَوٰىؕ‏ ﴿۳﴾  اِنۡ هُوَ اِلَّا وَحۡىٌ يُّوۡحٰىۙ‏ ﴿۴﴾  عَلَّمَهٗ شَدِيۡدُ الۡقُوٰىۙ‏ ﴿۵﴾  ذُوۡ مِرَّةٍؕ فَاسۡتَوٰىۙ‏ ﴿۶﴾  وَهُوَ بِالۡاُفُقِ الۡاَعۡلٰى ؕ‏ ﴿۷﴾  ثُمَّ دَنَا فَتَدَلّٰىۙ‏ ﴿۸﴾  فَكَانَ قَابَ قَوۡسَيۡنِ اَوۡ اَدۡنٰى‌ۚ‏ ﴿۹﴾  فَاَوۡحٰۤى الٰى عَبۡدِهٖ مَاۤ اَوۡحٰىؕ‏ ﴿۱۰﴾  مَا كَذَبَ الۡفُؤَادُ مَا رَاٰى‏ ﴿۱۱﴾  اَفَتُمٰرُوۡنَهٗ عَلٰى مَا يَرٰى‏ ﴿۱۲﴾  وَلَقَدۡ رَاٰهُ نَزۡلَةً اُخۡرٰىۙ‏ ﴿۱۳﴾  عِنۡدَ سِدۡرَةِ الۡمُنۡتَهٰى‏ ﴿۱۴﴾  عِنۡدَهَا جَنَّةُ الۡمَاۡوٰىؕ‏ ﴿۱۵﴾  اِذۡ يَغۡشَى السِّدۡرَةَ مَا يَغۡشٰىۙ‏ ﴿۱۶﴾  مَا زَاغَ الۡبَصَرُ وَمَا طَغٰى‏ ﴿۱۷﴾  لَقَدۡ رَاٰى مِنۡ اٰيٰتِ رَبِّهِ الۡكُبۡرٰى‏ ﴿۱۸﴾ 

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

“By the star when it descends, Your companion (Muhammad) has not strayed, nor has he erred, Nor does he speak from (his own) inclination, It is not but a revelation revealed, Taught to him by the one intense in strength (Jibril) , One of soundness. And he rose to (his) true form, While he was in the higher (part of the) horizon, Then he approached and descended, And was at a distance of two bow lengths or nearer, And he (Jibril) revealed (by inspiration) to His (God’s) Worshipper (Muhammed) what he revealed, The heart did not lie (about) what it saw, So, are you disputing with him over what he saw?, And he certainly saw him (Jibril) in another descent, At the Cedar (tree) of the Ultimate Destination, Near it is the Garden of Refuge, Where there comes to the Cedar (Lote-Tree) that which comes (to it), The sight (of the Prophet) did not swerve, nor did it transgress (its limit), He certainly saw of the great signs of his Lord.” Quran: (53: 1-18).

While in the first Heaven Jibril teachers the Messenger of Allah about Sins and Sinners and Paradise

While traveling in the First Heaven, Jibril (Gabriel), peace be to him, showed to the Messenger ﷺ of Allah illustrations of why Allah, praise to Him, prohibited people from causing harm to themselves and to each other. He showed him illustrated examples of sins, how repugnant and disgusting each one of them is, and how sinners would be punished.  

أمثلةُ ومشاهدُ تمثيليةٍ ، عن معاني المعاصي والذنوب ولماذا حُرِّمت ، أراها جبريل عليه السلام ، للنبي عليه الصلاةُ والسلام ، في السماء الدنيا ، كما أوردها ابن كثير ، جزاهُ اللهُ خيراً:

 قَالَ أَحْمَد أَيْضًا حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو الْمُغِيرَة حَدَّثَنَا صَفْوَان حَدَّثَنِي رَاشِد بْن سَعِيد وَعَبْد الرَّحْمَن بْن جُبَيْر عَنْ أَنَس قَالَ : قَالَ رَسُول اللَّه صَلَّى اللَّه عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ:

” لَمَّا عُرِجَ بِي إِلَى رَبِّي عَزَّ وَجَلَّ ، مَرَرْت بِقَوْمٍ لَهُمْ أَظْفَار مِنْ نُحَاس ، يَخْمُشُونَ بِهَا وُجُوههمْ وَصُدُورهمْ.

فَقُلْت: مَنْ هَؤُلَاءِ يَا جِبْرِيل ؟ 

قَالَ: هَؤُلَاءِ الَّذِينَ يَأْكُلُونَ لُحُوم النَّاس وَيَقَعُونَ فِي أَعْرَاضهمْ .”

Ahmed narrated from Safwan, from Rashid Bin Sa’id and Abudullah Bin Jubair, from Anas, may Allah be pleased with them. He said that the Messenger ﷺ of Allah said: 

“When I was taken in ascent to my Lord, praise to Him, I passed by a group of people who have copper nails, by which they bite their own faces and chests.  

I asked: O Jibril, who are these?

He said: (This is the example of) those who back bite people and gossip about their intimate life with evil hints.”  

فَمَضَيْت هُنَيْهَة ، فَإِذَا أَنَا بِأَخْوِنَةٍ عَلَيْهَا لَحْم مُشَرَّح ، لَيْسَ يَقْرَبهَا أَحَد ، وَإِذَا أَنَا بِأَخْوِنَةٍ أُخْرَى عَلَيْهَا لَحْم قَدْ أَرْوَحَ وَأَنْتَنَ ، عِنْدهَا أُنَاس يَأْكُلُونَ مِنْهَا.

قُلْت: يَا جِبْرِيل ، مَنْ هَؤُلَاءِ ؟  

قَالَ: هَؤُلَاءِ مِنْ أُمَّتك ، يَأْتُونَ الْحَرَام وَيَتْرُكُونَ الْحَلَال.  

Then, after I travelled a little while, I saw big plates of good meat but nobody was eating from them. Beside them, there were other plates of stinking and rotten meat, which are approached by a group of people, eating from them.  

I asked: O Jibril, who are these?

He said: (This is the example of) those among your Community (Ummah) who approach the prohibited behaviors (‘haram) and leave the allowed ones (‘halal).”

قَالَ: ثُمَّ مَضَيْت هُنَيْهَة ، فَإِذَا أَنَا بِأَقْوَامٍ يُقْطَع مِنْ جُنُوبهمْ اللَّحْم ، فَيُلْقَمُونَهُ ، فَيُقَال لَهُ: كُلْ كَمَا كُنْت تَأْكُل مِنْ لَحْم أَخِيك.  

قُلْت يَا جِبْرِيل مَنْ هَؤُلَاءِ ؟  

قَالَ هَؤُلَاءِ الْهَمَّازُونَ مِنْ أُمَّتك اللَّمَّازُونَ

Then, after I travelled a little while, I saw a group of people from whose bodies pieces of flesh are cut, then they are given their own flesh in their mouths.

(Then, the angels) tell them: Eat (your own flesh), like you used to eat your brother’s (or your sister’s) flesh.  

I asked: O Jibril, who are these?  

He said: (This is the example of) the scorners and mockers of others from among your Community (Ummah).  

قَالَ: ثُمَّ مَضَيْت هُنَيْهَة ، فَإِذَا أَنَا بِأَقْوَامٍ مَشَافِرهمْ كَمَشَافِر الْإِبِل. قَالَ: فَتُفْتَح أَفْوَاههمْ ، فَيُلْقَمُونَ مِنْ ذَلِكَ الْجَمْر ، ثُمَّ يَخْرُج مِنْ أَسَافِلهمْ ، فَسَمِعْتهمْ يَضِجُّونَ إِلَى اللَّه عَزَّ وَجَلَّ.

فَقُلْت: مَنْ هَؤُلَاءِ يَا جِبْرِيل ؟ 

قَالَ: هَؤُلَاءِ مِنْ أُمَّتك ” الَّذِينَ يَأْكُلُونَ أَمْوَال الْيَتَامَى ظُلْمًا إِنَّمَا يَأْكُلُونَ فِي بُطُونهمْ نَارًا وَسَيَصْلَوْنَ سَعِيرًا “

(وقد أصبحت هذه الإجابة هي الآية العاشرة من سورة النساء ، 4: 10).

Then, after I travelled a little while, I saw a group of people with big lips, like those of camels. They (are ordered to) open their mouths, then glowing pieces of firewood are thrown into their mouths (burning everything all the way), and getting out from their bottoms. I heard them pleading to Allah, praise to Him (to end their punishment).

I asked: O Jibril, who are these?

He said: (This is the example of) those among your Community (Ummah) who transgress on orphans (helpless people) by consuming their money (while they are entrusted to guard it).

“They eat fire in their bellies, and they will be punished in the Fire.”

(This answer became a verse in the Holy Quran, in Surat Al-Nissa, 4:10). 

قَالَ: ثُمَّ مَضَيْت هُنَيْهَة ، فَإِذَا أَنَا بِنِسَاءٍ تَعَلَّقْنَ بِثَدْيِهِنَّ ، فَسَمِعْتهنَّ يَضْجِجْنَ إِلَى اللَّه عَزَّ وَجَلَّ.

قُلْت: يَا جِبْرِيل ، مَنْ هَؤُلَاءِ النِّسَاء ؟  

قَالَ: هَؤُلَاءِ الزُّنَاة مِنْ أُمَّتك.

Then, after I travelled a little while, I saw a group of women hanging from their breasts. They were pleading to Allah, praise to Him (to end their punishment). 

I asked: O Jibril, who are these women?

He said: (This is the example of) the adulterers and fornicators among your Community (Ummah).  

Note:

The Arabic word used here and in the Holy Quran is “Zina,” which refers to sex outside marriage, applying to both those who are married and those who are not married. As a result, it refers to both English words of adultery and fornication.

ثُمَّ أَتَى عَلَى قَوْم بَيْن أَيْدِيهمْ لَحْم نَضِيج فِي قِدْر وَلَحْم نِيء فِي قِدْر خَبِيث. فَجَعَلُوا يَأْكُلُونَ مِنْ اللَّحْم النِّيء الْخَبِيث وَيَدَعُونَ النَّضِيج الطَّيِّب.

فَقَالَ: ” مَا هَؤُلَاءِ يَا جِبْرِيل؟ “

فَقَالَ: هَذَا الرَّجُل مِنْ أُمَّتك تَكُون عِنْده الْمَرْأَة الْحَلَال الطَّيِّبَة ، فَيَأْتِي اِمْرَأَة خَبِيثَة ، فَيَبِيت عِنْدهَا حَتَّى يُصْبِح. وَالْمَرْأَة تَقُوم مِنْ عِنْد زَوْجهَا حَلَالًا طَيِّبًا ، فَتَأْتِي رَجُلًا خَبِيثًا ، فَتَبِيت مَعَهُ حَتَّى تُصْبِح.

Then, he came to a group of people, who had in front of them cooked meat in one pot and raw, stinking meat in another pot. Then, they started eating from the raw, stinking meat, leaving the good, cooked meat. 

(The Messenger ﷺ of Allah) asked: O Jibril, who are these?   

He said: (This is the example of) the adulterer man among your Community (Ummah), who has a good woman, allowed for him (his wife) but he goes to a bad woman (not allowed for him), and spends a night with her until the morning. 

This is (also example of) the adulterer woman among your Community (Ummah), who has a good man, allowed for her (her husband) but she goes to a bad man (not allowed for her), and spends a night with him until the morning.  

قَالَ: ثُمَّ مَضَيْت هُنَيْهَة ، فَإِذَا أَنَا بِأَقْوَامٍ بُطُونهمْ أَمْثَال الْبُيُوت ، كُلَّمَا نَهَضَ أَحَدهمْ خَرَّ. فَيَقُول: اللَّهُمَّ لَا تُقِمْ السَّاعَة. قَالَ: وَهُمْ عَلَى سَابِلَة آلِ فِرْعَوْن. قَالَ: فَتَجِيء السَّابِلَة فَتَطَؤُهُمْ. قَالَ: فَسَمِعْتهمْ يَضِجُّونَ إِلَى اللَّه.

قَالَ: قُلْت: يَا جِبْرِيل ، مَنْ هَؤُلَاءِ ؟  

قَالَ: هَؤُلَاءِ مِنْ أُمَّتك ” الَّذِينَ يَأْكُلُونَ الرِّبَا ، “لَا يَقُومُونَ إِلَّا كَمَا يَقُوم الَّذِي يَتَخَبَّطهُ الشَّيْطَان مِنْ الْمَسّ.”

(وقد أصبحت هذه الإجابة جزءاً من الآية  275 من سورة النساء ، 2: 275).

Then, after I travelled a little while, I saw groups of people whose bellies look like homes. Whenever one of them tried to stand up, he would fall down. Then, he says: O Allah, please don’t bring the Hour (of Reckoning). These are on the path of the Pharaoh and his people, then the path folds them. (The Messenger ﷺ of Allah) heard them pleading with Allah (praise to Him, to end their punishment). 

(The Messenger of Allah, pbbuh) asked: O Jibril, who are these?  

He said: (This is the example of) those from among your Community (Ummah), who consume usury (riba: exploitative interests, leading to extracting more than doubling principals of loans). “Those who consume usurious interests cannot stand except as one who is being beaten by Satan into insanity”  

(This answer became part of Verse 275 of Surat Al-Nissa, 4:10, in the Holy Quran).  

ثُمَّ أَتَى عَلَى قَوْم تُرْضَخ رُءُوسهمْ بِالصَّخْرِ ، كُلَّمَا رُضِخَتْ عَادَتْ كَمَا كَانَتْ ، وَلَا يَفْتُر عَنْهُمْ مِنْ ذَلِكَ شَيْء.  

فَقَالَ: ” مَا هَؤُلَاءِ يَا جِبْرِيل ؟ ”  

قَالَ: هَؤُلَاءِ الَّذِينَ تَتَثَاقَل رُءُوسهمْ عَنْ الصَّلَاة الْمَكْتُوبَة.” 

Then, he came to a group of people, whose heads would be hit against rocks. Then, the act is repeated. 

(The Messenger ﷺ of Allah) asked: O Jibril, who are these?  

He said: (This is the example of) those who are lazy to stand up for (to perform) the ordained prayers. 

ثُمَّ أَتَى عَلَى قَوْم عَلَى أَقْبَالهمْ رِقَاع ، وَعَلَى أَدْبَارهمْ رِقَاع ، يَسْرَحُونَ كَمَا تَسْرَح الْإِبِل وَالنَّعَم ، وَيَأْكُلُونَ الضَّرِيع وَالزَّقُّوم وَرَضْف جَهَنَّم وَحِجَارَتهَا.”  

قَالَ: فَمَا هَؤُلَاءِ يَا جِبْرِيل ؟ ”  

قَالَ: هَؤُلَاءِ الَّذِينَ لَا يُؤَدُّونَ صَدَقَات أَمْوَالهمْ ، وَمَا ظَلَمَهُمْ اللَّه تَعَالَى شَيْئًا وَمَا اللَّه بِظَلَّامٍ لِلْعَبِيدِ.”  

(وقد أصبحت هذه الإجابة جزءاً من خمس آياتٍ من سور القرآن الكريم هي: 3: 182 ، 8: 51 ، 22: 10 ، 41: 46 ، و 50: 29).  

Then, he came to a group of people, whose front and back private parts are covered with patches. They eat from pasture lands, like camels and domestic animals. They eat dry and repugnant plants, as well as stones and rocks of Hell.  

(The Messenger ﷺ of Allah,) asked: O Jibril, who are these?  

He said: (This is the example of) those who do not give the ordained charity (Zakat) from their wealth. Allah, praise to Him, has not done injustice to them, in anything they did. Allah is not unjust to the slaves (slaves to the wealth they collect). 

This meaning about Allah, praise to him, as not being unjust to those who enslave themselves to their desires and wrongdoing, is expressed in five verses of the Holy Quran, in which they are described as ‘abeed (slaves). These are 3: 82, 8: 51, 22: 10, 41: 46, and 50: 29. However, righteous believers are referred to as ‘ibad (worshippers). For more information about this topic, see the author’s article, “Worshippers by choice or forced slaves?”

قَالَ: ثُمَّ أَتَى عَلَى خَشَبَة عَلَى الطَّرِيق لَا يَمُرّ بِهَا ثَوْب إِلَّا شَقَّتْهُ وَلَا شَيْء إِلَّا خَرَقَتْهُ.

قَالَ: مَا هَذَا يَا جِبْرِيل ؟

قَالَ: هَذَا مَثَل أَقْوَام مِنْ أُمَّتك يَقْعُدُونَ عَلَى الطَّرِيق فَيَقْطَعُونَهَا ثُمَّ تَلَا: ” وَلَا تَقْعُدُوا بِكُلِّ صِرَاط تُوعِدُونَ وَتَصُدُّونَ.”

(كان ذلك هو الجزء الأول من الآية 86 من سورة الأعراف (7) ، والتي نصها الكامل هو:

“وَلَا تَقْعُدُوا بِكُلِّ صِرَاطٍ تُوعِدُونَ وَتَصُدُّونَ عَن سَبِيلِ اللَّـهِ مَنْ آمَنَ بِهِ وَتَبْغُونَهَا عِوَجًا ۚ وَاذْكُرُوا إِذْ كُنتُمْ قَلِيلًا فَكَثَّرَكُمْ ۖ وَانظُرُوا كَيْفَ كَانَ عَاقِبَةُ الْمُفْسِدِينَ).

Then, he came to a piece of wood on the road, which cuts any piece of clothes (passing people wear) or penetrates anything passes by it. 

(The Messenger ﷺ of Allah) asked: O Jibril, who is this?  

He said: (This is the example of) groups of people from your Community (Ummah), who sit on the road, blocking it. Then, he recited Verse 86 of Surat Al-A’araf (Chapter 7) of the Holy Quran. 

(The text of the full verse is: “And do not sit on every path, threatening and averting from the way of Allah those who believe in Him, seeking to make it (seem) deviant. And remember when you were few and He increased you. And see how was the end of the corrupters” – 7: 86). 

قَالَ: ثُمَّ أَتَى عَلَى رَجُل قَدْ جَمَعَ حُزْمَة عَظِيمَة لَا يَسْتَطِيع حَمْلهَا ، وَهُوَ يَزِيد عَلَيْهَا.  

فَقَالَ: “مَا هَذَا يَا جِبْرِيل ؟ ”  

قَالَ: هَذَا الرَّجُل مِنْ أُمَّتك ، يَكُون عَلَيْهِ أَمَانَات النَّاس ، لَا يَقْدِر عَلَى أَدَائِهَا ، وَهُوَ يُرِيد أَنْ يَحْمِل عَلَيْهَا.”  

Then, he came to a man who gathered a great bundle, which he cannot carry. However, he keeps adding more (weight) on it. 

(The Messenger ﷺ of Allah) asked: O Jibril, who is this?  

He said: (This is the example of) the man from your Community (Ummah), who has obligations (trusts, duties, or debts) towards people. He cannot handle or fulfill these obligations, yet he adds more on himself.  

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ثُمَّ أَتَى عَلَى قَوْم تُقْرَض أَلْسِنَتهمْ وَشِفَاههمْ بِمَقَارِيض مِنْ حَدِيد ، كُلَّمَا قُرِضَتْ عَادَتْ كَمَا كَانَتْ ، لَا يَفْتُر عَنْهُمْ مِنْ ذَلِكَ شَيْء.  

فَقَالَ: ” مَا هَذَا يَا جِبْرِيل ؟ ”  

فَقَالَ: هَؤُلَاءِ خُطَبَاء الْفِتْنَة.”  

Then, he came to a group of people, whose tongues and lips are cut with iron cutters, then they have their tongues and lips back, to be cut again.

(The Messenger ﷺ of Allah) asked: O Jibril, who are these?

He said: (This is the example of) the speakers of Fitna (agitators and instigators). 

ثُمَّ أَتَى عَلَى جُحرٍ صَغِير يَخْرُج مِنْهُ ثورٌ عَظِيم ، فَجَعَلَ الثَّوْر يُرِيد أَنْ يَرْجِع مِنْ حَيْثُ خَرَجَ فَلَا يَسْتَطِيع.  

فَقَالَ: ” مَا هَذَا يَا جِبْرِيل ؟ ”  

فَقَالَ: هَذَا الرَّجُل يَتَكَلَّم بِالْكَلِمَةِ الْعَظِيمَة ، ثُمَّ يَنْدَم عَلَيْهَا فَلَا يَسْتَطِيع أَنْ يَرُدّهَا.”  

Then, he came to a small hole in the ground, from which a great bull comes out. Then, the bull tries to get back to its hole but it can’t.  

(The Messenger ﷺ of Allah) asked: O Jibril, what is this?  

He said: (This is the example of) a man, who says something tremendously wrong. Then, he regrets it but he cannot take it back.  

قَالَ: فَسَارَ وَسَارَ مَعَهُ جِبْرِيل ، عَلَيْهِمَا السَّلَام. قَالَ: فَأَتَى عَلَى قَوْم يَزْرَعُونَ فِي يَوْم وَيَحْصُدُونَ فِي يَوْم ، كُلَّمَا حَصَدُوا عَادَ كَمَا كَانَ. فَقَالَ النَّبِيّ ، صَلَّى اللَّه عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: ” يَا جِبْرِيل ، مَا هَذَا ؟ ” قَالَ: “هَؤُلَاءِ الْمُجَاهِدُونَ فِي سَبِيل اللَّه ، تُضَاعَف لَهُمْ الْحَسَنَة بِسَبْعِمِائَةِ ضِعْف ، وَمَا أَنْفَقُوا مِنْ شَيْء فَهُوَ يَخْلُفهُ ، وَهُوَ خَيْر الرَّازِقِينَ.”

Then, the Messenger ﷺ of Allah travelled with Jibril, peace be to him, until he came to a group of people who plant (by throwing the seeds) in one day, then they harvest their crop in the following day (getting very fast, good results). Then, the crop gives fruits again (without them planting seeds again). 

(The Messenger ﷺ of Allah) said: O Jibril, who are these?

He said: (This is the example of) the fighters for the sake of Allah, whose good deed (‘hasana) is multiplied seven hundred times, and whatever they spend (for good), Allah compensates them for it, as He is the Best of Givers (the Best of Providers).  

ثُمَّ أَتَى عَلَى وَادٍ فَوَجَدَ رِيحًا طَيِّبَة بَارِدَة وَرِيح مِسْك وَسَمِعَ صَوْتًا ، فَقَالَ : ” يَا جِبْرِيل مَا هَذِهِ الرِّيح الطَّيِّبَة الْبَارِدَة وَمَا هَذَا الْمِسْك وَمَا هَذَا الصَّوْت ؟ “

قَالَ: “هَذَا صَوْت الْجَنَّة ، تَقُول:

يَا رَبّ اِئْتِنِي بِمَا وَعَدْتنِي ، فَقَدْ كَثُرَتْ غُرَفِي وَإِسْتَبْرَقِي وَحَرِيرِي وَسُنْدُسِي وَعَبْقَرِيِّي وَلُؤْلُؤِي وَمَرْجَانِي وَفِضَّتِي وَذَهَبِي وَأَكْوَابِي وَصِحَافِي وَأَبَارِيقِي وَأَكْؤُسِي وَعَسَلِي وَمَائِي وَلَبَنِي وَخَمْرِي ، فَائْتِنِي بِمَا وَعَدْتنِي.”

فَقَالَ (الله سبحانه وتعالى):

“لَك كُلّ مُسْلِم وَمُسْلِمَة وَمُؤْمِن وَمُؤْمِنَة ، وَمَنْ آمَنَ بِي وَبِرُسُلِي ، وَعَمِلَ صَالِحًا ، وَلَمْ يُشْرِك بِي شَيْئًا ، وَلَمْ يَتَّخِذ مِنْ دُونِي أَنْدَادًا ، وَمَنْ خَشِيَنِي فَهُوَ آمِن ، وَمَنْ سَأَلَنِي أَعْطَيْته ، وَمَنْ أَقْرَضَنِي جَزَيْته ، وَمَنْ تَوَكَّلَ عَلَيَّ كَفَيْته ، إِنِّي أَنَا اللَّه ، لَا إِلَه إِلَّا أَنَا ، لَا أَخْلُف الْمِيعَاد ، وَقَدْ أَفْلَحَ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ ، وَتَبَارَكَ اللَّه أَحْسَن الْخَالِقِينَ.”

قَالَتْ: “قَدْ رَضِيت.”

Then, he came to a valley, in which there was a cool, good smelling, musky breeze, and where he heard a voice.

(The Messenger ﷺ of Allah) asked: O Jibril, what is this cool, good smelling and musky breeze? And what’s this voice? 

He (Jibril) said: This is (the smelling of) Paradise and its voice, saying:

“My Lord, give me what you promised me with, I have increased the number of my rooms, my green, silk, and brocade garments, my beautiful and fine carpet, my pearls, corals, silver, and gold jewels, my cups, plates, jars, glasses, and my water, milk, and wine. (I’m ready to receive the believers whom) You promised to bring to me.”

(Allah, praise to Him) said:

“To you (I’m bringing), all male and female Muslims, all male and female believers, who believed in Me and in my Messengers, who did good deeds, who did not take partners with Me, and who did not take equals to Me. Whoever feared me (in his/her life) will be safe (here in Paradise), whoever asked Me I’ll give him/her, whoever lent me (by spending on the poor and good causes) I’ll compensate him/her, whoever trusted and depended on Me I’ll be his/her Patron. I’m Allah, there is no other god than Me, I don’t break My promise. The believers have won. Allah is the Source of Blessings, He is the Best of Creators.”

(Paradise then) said: “I’m content.”

قَالَ: “ثُمَّ أَتَى عَلَى وَادٍ فَسَمِعَ صَوْتًا مُنْكَرًا وَوَجَدَ رِيحًا خَبِيثَة. فَقَالَ : مَا هَذِهِ الرِّيح يَا جِبْرِيل ، وَمَا هَذَا الصَّوْت ؟ “

فَقَالَ: “هَذَا صَوْت جَهَنَّم تَقُول:

يَا رَبّ اِئْتِنِي بِمَا وَعَدْتنِي. فَقَدْ كَثُرَتْ سَلَاسِلِي وَأَغْلَالِي ، وَسَعِيرِي وَحَمِيمِي ، وَضَرِيعِي وَغَسَّاقِي وَعَذَابِي. وَقَدْ بَعُدَ قَعْرِي وَاشْتَدَّ حَرِّي ، فَائْتِنِي بِمَا وَعَدْتنِي.”

قَالَ (الله سبحانه وتعالى):

“لَك كُلّ مُشْرِك وَمُشْرِكَة وَكَافِر وَكَافِرَة وَكُلّ خَبِيث وَخَبِيثَة وَكُلّ جَبَّار لَا يُؤْمِن بِيَوْمِ الْحِسَاب.”

قَالَتْ: “قَدْ رَضِيت.”

Then, he came to a valley, where he heard a repugnant voice, and there was a bad smelling.

(The Messenger ﷺ of Allah) asked: O Jibril, what is this (place)? And what’s this voice? 

He (Jibril) said: This is the voice of Hell, saying:

“O, my Lord, give me what You promised me with. I have increased my chains and my shackles, my blaze and my scalding (hot) water, my thorny dry plants and my (foul) purulence, and my torment. My bottom has deepened and my heat has intensified. Bring me what You promised me with.”

(Allah, praise to Him) said:

“(I’m bringing) to you: Every male and female who took partners with Me, every male and female who rejected Me, every male and female who committed grave sins, and every tyrant who does not believe in the Day of Reckoning.”

(Hell then) said: “I’m content.”

Then, the Messenger ﷺ of Allah descended back by the Mi’raj from the Heavens to Baytul Maqdes (Al-Quds, Jerusalem) on Earth, and from there he returned to Makkah, by the Buraq.

The Treaty of ‘Aqabah

In Yathrib there were two main tribes, the Aws and the Khazraj. Both were very powerful, they were always at war with one another, and both worshipped idols. Also in Yathrib were many Jews who, unlike the Arab at that time, knew that there was only One God, and worshipped Him. They had told the Arabs many times that a Prophet would be coming to them (the Jews). The time came for the pilgrimage to the Ka‟bah, and several people from Yathrib were going, among them six men from the tribe of Khazraj. They had heard about the Prophet Mohammed‟s ﷺ preaching and thought that must be the Prophet the Jews had told them about. So they decided to go speak to him during their stay in Mecca. They met the Prophet ﷺ at a spot known as „Aqabah, near Mecca, and invited them to sit with him. He explained to them what Islam meant recited to them from the Qur’an. When they heard the Qur’an recited touched their hearts so deeply that they became Muslims and on leaving Mecca they promised to return the following year. When they reached Yathrib carrying Islam in their hearts, they told their relatives and friends what they had heard from the Prophet ﷺ and many more people became Muslims.

A year passed and the pilgrimage season came around again. Twelve important men from Yathrib went to Mecca to meet the Prophet ﷺ and promised

faithfully to serve him and Islam. In return, the Prophet ﷺ sent one of his friends, Mus‟ab ibn ‘Umayr, with them to teach the Qur’an and instruct them in their new religion. Another year passed and still more Muslims came from Yathrib to Mecca for the pilgrimage. On this occasion a secret meeting with the Prophet ﷺ was arranged to be held at night. Seventy-three men and one woman from Yathrib came, and the Prophet ﷺ arrived with his uncle, al-„Abbas. During this meeting the men from Yathrib offered to protect and defend the Prophet ﷺ and his followers if they would come to live in Yathrib. This promise of protection came to be known as the Treaty of „Aqabah. The treaty was most fortunate for even though Islam was growing in Yathrib, the Muslims in Mecca were still suffering. The Prophet ﷺ therefore told his friends and followers to go to Yathrib where they would be safe, and most of them took this opportunity to leave. Despite all this suffering the Prophet ﷺ was not allowed to fight his enemies, for Allah had told him to forgive those who insulted him or would not listen to his message. But the Quraysh had closed their minds so utterly to the word of Allah, and grew so hard-hearted towards the Prophet ﷺ and his followers, that Allah gave permission to the Prophet ﷺ to fight those who tried to harm him or his companions.

بِسۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
اُذِنَ لِلَّذِيۡنَ يُقٰتَلُوۡنَ بِاَنَّهُمۡ ظُلِمُوۡا‌ ؕ وَاِنَّ اللّٰهَ عَلٰى نَـصۡرِهِمۡ لَـقَدِيۡرُ ۙ‏ ﴿۳۹﴾  اۨلَّذِيۡنَ اُخۡرِجُوۡا مِنۡ دِيَارِهِمۡ بِغَيۡرِ حَقٍّ اِلَّاۤ اَنۡ يَّقُوۡلُوۡا رَبُّنَا اللّٰهُ‌ ؕ وَلَوۡلَا دَ فۡعُ اللّٰهِ النَّاسَ بَعۡضَهُمۡ بِبَـعۡضٍ لَّهُدِّمَتۡ صَوَامِعُ وَبِيَعٌ وَّصَلٰوتٌ وَّمَسٰجِدُ يُذۡكَرُ فِيۡهَا اسۡمُ اللّٰهِ كَثِيۡرًا‌ ؕ وَلَيَنۡصُرَنَّ اللّٰهُ مَنۡ يَّنۡصُرُهٗ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰهَ لَقَوِىٌّ عَزِيۡزٌ‏ ﴿۴۰﴾ 

“Permission is given unto those who fight because they have been wronged; And Allah is surely able to give them victory; Those who have been driven from their homes unjustly only because they said: Our Lord is Allah”.(Qur’an 22.39-40)

Quraysh began to fear the Prophet ﷺ for they realised that he was now strong enough to fight them and had been given leave to do so by Allah. They also knew that he now had the people of Yathrib to help and protect him. Seeing that the Muslims were leaving the city, they decided to kill the Prophet ﷺ, before he, too, left Mecca to join his followers in Yathrib. In this way they hoped to put an end to Islam once and for all.

Al-Hijrah (Migration to Yathrib now known as Madinah)

Quraysh found out that some people from yathrib hand accepted Islam, so they intensified their persecution of the Muslims in Makkah. The prophet ﷺ told the Muslims to migrate to Yathrib, so they did in secret, apart from Umar, Ali and Abubakr. Umar announced to the mushrikeen of Quraysh that he was leaving, and said, “Whoever wants his mother be bereft of him, let him catch up with me tomorrow in the bottom of this valley,” but no one set out in pursuit of him. Abu Bakr kept asking the Prophet ﷺ to allow him to go to Yathrib, but the Messenger ﷺ of Allah kept saying, ‘Do not be in a hurry; it might be that Allah will give you a travelling companion.’

When Quraysh found out for sure that the Muslims were being honoured and protected in Yathrib, they all met in Daar an-Nadwah to plan how they would kill the Messenger ﷺ himself. They agreed to each chose a young man from each of the tribes who would kill him all together. In this way the blame would fall on all the tribes and the Banu Manaaf tribe would not be able to fight them all and would have to accept the diah (blood money). When he heard this, the Devil in the disguise of the old man, said, ‘That man is right; in my opinion it is the only thing to do!’ The leaders of Quraysh then left to carry out their plan to murder the Prophet ﷺ.

بِسۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
وَاِذۡ يَمۡكُرُ بِكَ الَّذِيۡنَ كَفَرُوۡا لِيُثۡبِتُوۡكَ اَوۡ يَقۡتُلُوۡكَ اَوۡ يُخۡرِجُوۡكَ‌ؕ وَيَمۡكُرُوۡنَ وَيَمۡكُرُ اللّٰهُ‌ؕ وَاللّٰهُ خَيۡرُ الۡمٰكِرِيۡنَ‏ ﴿۳۰﴾ 

“And when the unbelievers plot against thee, to confine thee, or kill thee, or to drive thee out, they were plotting, But Allah was (also) plotting; and Allah is the best of plotters”. (Qur’an 8.30)

Before the night fell, on which Muhammad ﷺ was to be killed, Jibril came to him and said, ‘Do not sleep tonight in your own bed.’ The Prophet ﷺ understood what was going to happen, so he told „Ali to lie in his bed and wrap himself in the blanket that the Prophet ﷺ normally used, promising that no harm would befall him and that the following morning he should return the items that the kuffaar (none believers) had entrusted to him for safekeeping. With the coming of darkness the young men of Quraysh had gathered outside the Prophet’s ﷺ house, waiting for him to come out. After he had made sure that ‘Ali was safe, the Prophet ﷺ left the house. At that very moment Allah took away the sight of the warriors so that they could not see the Prophet ﷺ, who took a handful of dust, sprinkled it on their heads and recited these verses:

بِسۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
يٰسٓ ۚ‏ ﴿۱﴾  وَالۡقُرۡاٰنِ الۡحَكِيۡمِ ۙ‏ ﴿۲﴾  اِنَّكَ لَمِنَ الۡمُرۡسَلِيۡنَۙ‏ ﴿۳﴾  عَلٰى صِرَاطٍ مُّسۡتَقِيۡمٍؕ‏ ﴿۴﴾  تَنۡزِيۡلَ الۡعَزِيۡزِ الرَّحِيۡمِ ۙ‏ ﴿۵﴾  لِتُنۡذِرَ قَوۡمًا مَّاۤ اُنۡذِرَ اٰبَآؤُهُمۡ فَهُمۡ غٰفِلُوۡنَ‏ ﴿۶﴾  لَقَدۡ حَقَّ الۡقَوۡلُ عَلٰٓى اَكۡثَرِهِمۡ فَهُمۡ لَا يُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ‏ ﴿۷﴾  اِنَّا جَعَلۡنَا فِىۡۤ اَعۡنَاقِهِمۡ اَغۡلٰلًا فَهِىَ اِلَى الۡاَ ذۡقَانِ فَهُمۡ مُّقۡمَحُوۡنَ‏ ﴿۸﴾  وَجَعَلۡنَا مِنۡۢ بَيۡنِ اَيۡدِيۡهِمۡ سَدًّا وَّمِنۡ خَلۡفِهِمۡ سَدًّا فَاَغۡشَيۡنٰهُمۡ فَهُمۡ لَا يُبۡصِرُوۡنَ‏ ﴿۹﴾

In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

 “Ya Sin By the Wise Qur’an, Thou art truly among those sent On the straight path; A Revelation of the All-mighty, the All-wise, That thou may warn a people whose fathers were never warned, so they are heedless. The Word has already proved true of most of them, yet they do not believe. Lo! We have put on their necks collars of iron up to the chin, so that they are made stiff-necked. and We have put before them a barrier; and We have covered them so they do not see”.(Qur’an 36.1-9)

The prophet ﷺ then went to the house of Abu Bakr’s house and told him,

‘Allah has told me that now is the time for us to leave Mecca.’

‘Together?’ asked Abu Bakr.

‘Together’, the Prophet ﷺ replied. Abu Bakr wept for joy, because now he knew that the travelling companion he had been promised was the Prophet ﷺ himself.

Abu Bakr had hired ‘Abdullah ibn Urayqit, who was a mushrik (one who rejects truth and worship someone other than Allah), to act as their guide, telling him to avoid the usual route to Yathrib and following another route that the kuffaar of Quraysh did not know of.

The Messenger ﷺ of Allah and Abu Bakr set out on the Thursday 1st Rabee al-Awwal, when the prophet was fifty three years old. When they were out of the city the Prophet ﷺ looked back and said, ‘Of all Allah’s earth, you are the dearest place to Allah and to me and if my people had not driven me out I would never have left you.’

They set out with their guide in the direction of Yemen, until they reached the cave of Thawr, in which they stayed for three nights, and Abudullah ibn Bakr stayed with them before dawn and spend the mornings with Quraysh in Makkah as if he had slept among them. He would go back to the cave at night to report back of any news he heard about what Quraysh was planning.

When Quraysh found out that the Prophet ﷺ and his companion had gone, they set out after them, searching in every direction. When they did not find them on the usual routs they tried the rout to Yemen. Three days later they finally reached the cave where the Prophet ﷺ and Abu Bakr were hiding, but a strange and wonderful thing had happened. A spider had woven its web right across the entrance to the cave and a dove was nesting with her mate next to the entrance. The Meccans eventually found the cave and stood at the mouth of the cave. One of them said,” Perhaps he and his companion are in the cave,” but the others replied by saying, “Do you not see that a spider has woven its webs over the mouth of the cave, and there are birds nesting there, which shows that no one has entered this cave in a long time.”

As the Meccans stood in front of the cave, with only the spider’s web separating them from the fugitives, Abu Bakr began to fear for their safety. He whispered to the Prophet ﷺ, they are very close. If one of them turns we will be seen.’ But he was comforted by the Prophet’s reply:

In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

“What do you think of two who have with them Allah as their third? ‘Grieve not, for verily Allah is with us”. (Qur’an 9.40).

Three days later the Prophet ﷺ and Abu Bakr thought it safe to leave the cave. Abu Bakr’s son, ‘Amir, had joined them on their journey to Yathrib. ‘Amir would ride behind his father. The leaders of Quraysh, meanwhile, returned to Mecca and offered a reward of one hundred camels to whoever captured the Prophet ﷺ. Among those who went in search of him was a famous warrior. He was, in fact, the only one to catch up with him, but whenever he came close, his horse would suddenly sink up to its knees in the sand. When this had happened three times, he understood that the Prophet ﷺ was protected by a power stronger than anything he had known, and so he went back to Mecca. On arriving there he warned everyone against continuing the search, relating what had happened to him.

بِسۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
اِلَّا تَـنۡصُرُوۡهُ فَقَدۡ نَصَرَهُ اللّٰهُ اِذۡ اَخۡرَجَهُ الَّذِيۡنَ كَفَرُوۡا ثَانِىَ اثۡنَيۡنِ اِذۡ هُمَا فِى الۡغَارِ اِذۡ يَقُوۡلُ لِصَاحِبِهٖ لَا تَحۡزَنۡ اِنَّ اللّٰهَ مَعَنَا‌ ۚ فَاَنۡزَلَ اللّٰهُ سَكِيۡنَـتَهٗ عَلَيۡهِ وَاَ يَّدَهٗ بِجُنُوۡدٍ لَّمۡ تَرَوۡهَا وَجَعَلَ كَلِمَةَ الَّذِيۡنَ كَفَرُوا السُّفۡلٰى‌ ؕ وَكَلِمَةُ اللّٰهِ هِىَ الۡعُلۡيَا ؕ وَاللّٰهُ عَزِيۡزٌ حَكِيۡمٌ‏ ﴿۴۰﴾  

In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

“If you do not help him, still Allah has helped him already, When the unbelievers drove him forth, (he second of two, When the two were in the Cave, when he said to his companion, “Grieve not; surely Allah is with us.” Then Allah caused His peace and Reassurance to descend upon him, And helped him with hosts you cannot see, And He made the word of the unbelievers the lowest; While Allah’s word is the uppermost; Allah is Allmighty, All-wise”. (Qur’an 9.40)

The Messenger ﷺ and Abu Bakr reached Madeenah on the twelth day of Rabee al-Awwal, after the people of the city had waited for a long time, going out each morning to heights overlooking the city, and not coming back until the sun became hot at noon. When they saw him, they rejoiced greatly.

When the messenger ﷺ was on his way to Yathrib, he reached Quba which is the village two miles to the south of Madeenah. There he laid the foundations for the first Mosque to be built in Islam. He stayed there for four days, then Friday morning, he went to Yathrib. and prayed the first Jumuah prayer. Many of the people including the wealthiest offered the messenger ﷺ to stay with them but he refused and, pointing to his she-camel, Qaswa’, said, ‘Let her go her way’, because he knew that his camel was under Allah’s command and would guide him to the spot where he should stay. They let the camel go until she finally knelt down beside a house belonging to the Bani an-Najjar, the tribe to whom the Prophet’s ﷺ mother was related. This house was used as a drying-place for dates and belonged to two young orphan boys named Sahl and Suhayl. They offered to give it to the Prophet ﷺ but he insisted on paying them for it, and so their guardian, As‟ad the son of Zurarah, who was present, made the necessary arrangements.

The Prophet ﷺ ordered that a mosque and a place for him to live be built on the site. All the Muslims worked together to finish it quickly even the Prophet ﷺ joined in. It was here that the Muslims would pray and meet to make important decisions and plans.

After the building of the mosque, the Prophet ﷺ wanted to strengthen the relationship between the people called the Muhajirah or Emigrants, who had left Mecca with him, and the people of Medina, who were known as the Ansar, or Helpers. Each man from Medinah took as his brother a man from Mecca, sharing everything with him and treating him as a member of his own family. This was the beginning of the Islamic brotherhood.

In the early days of Islam, the times for prayer were not announced and So the Muslims would come to the mosque and wait for the prayer so as not to miss it. The Prophet ﷺ wondered how to tell the people that it was time for prayers. He discussed it with his friends, and at first two ideas were put forward; that of blowing a horn as the Jews did, and that of using a wooden clapper like the Christians.

Then a man called „Abd Allah ibn Zayd came to the Prophet ﷺ and told him he had had a dream in which he had seen a man dressed all in green, holding a wooden clapper. He had said to the man, ‘Would you sell me your clapper in order to call the people to prayer?’ The man had replied, ‘A better way to call the people to prayer is to Say: “Allahu Akbar, Allah is Most Great!” four times, followed by “I bear witness that there is no divinity but Allah, I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, Come to prayer, come to prayer, Come to salvation, come to salvation. Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar! There is no divinity but Allah!”‘

When the Prophet ﷺ heard this, he said it was a true vision from Allah. He sent for Bilal, who had a beautiful, strong voice, and ordered him to call the people to prayer in just this way. Bilal did so and soon after ‘Umar came out of his house and told the Prophet ﷺ that he had seen exactly the same vision himself. The Prophet ﷺ replied, ‘Allah be praised for that.’ The adhan, or call to prayer, which came to ‘Abd Allah ibn Zayd in his dream and was performed by Bilal on the instruction of the Prophet ﷺ is the one we still hear today being called from the minarets of mosques all over the world.

The Yathrib became known as Al Madinah (meaning: The City) known as the city of the prophet. The Messenger ﷺ was also established ruler of Madinah.

The Meseenger ﷺ of Allah wrote a covenant between the Muhaajireen and the Ansaar, in which he made an agreement with the Jews and assured them in their religion and property. Ibn Hishaam quotes this document at length in the Seerah. It sets out the principles on which the first Muslim state was established, and it contains the principles of humanity, social justice, religious tolerance and cooperation in the interest of society.

The General principles of the Agreement

  1. The Muslim ummah should be united and undivided.
  2. The members of the ummah are equal in rights and honour.
  3. The ummah should stand firm against the evildoing, sin and transgression.
  4. The ummah should reach an agreement as to how its enemies are to be dealt with, and no believer should make a peace treaty without other believers.
  5. The society is to be based on the best, most correct and strongest system.
  6. Those who rebel against the state and its public systems should be fought and not supported.
  7. Those who want to live with the Muslims in a cooperative and peaceful manner should be protected, and they should not be oppressed or harmed.
  8. Non-Muslims have the right to their own religion and their wealth. They should not be forced to embrace Islam, and their wealth should not be taken from them.
  9. Non-Muslims should contribute to the expenses of the state as Muslims do.
  10. Non-Muslims should cooperate with the Muslims in warding off threats to the state from all enemies.
  11. They should contribute to the state’s defence budget so long as it is in a state of war.

The Battle of Badr

The Muslims who had gone to Medinah, had left all their belongings behind in Mecca and these had been taken by their enemies. Thus, when the Muslims heard that Abu Sufyan, one of the leaders of Quraysh, was on his way back to Mecca from Syria with a large caravan of goods, they decided that the time had come for them to retrieve some of their losses. The Prophet ﷺ gave the Muslims permission for this attack and everyone began to get ready for the raid, for it had been revealed:

بِسۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
اُذِنَ لِلَّذِيۡنَ يُقٰتَلُوۡنَ بِاَنَّهُمۡ ظُلِمُوۡا‌ ؕ وَاِنَّ اللّٰهَ عَلٰى نَـصۡرِهِمۡ لَـقَدِيۡرُ ۙ‏ ﴿۳۹﴾

“Permission to fight is given unto those who fight because they have been wronged; and Allah is surely able to give them victory” (Quran 22.39)

بِسۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
يَسۡـــَٔلُوۡنَكَ عَنِ الشَّهۡرِ الۡحَـرَامِ قِتَالٍ فِيۡهِ‌ؕ قُلۡ قِتَالٌ فِيۡهِ كَبِيۡرٌ ‌ؕ وَصَدٌّ عَنۡ سَبِيۡلِ اللّٰهِ وَ کُفۡرٌ ۢ بِهٖ وَالۡمَسۡجِدِ الۡحَـرَامِ وَاِخۡرَاجُ اَهۡلِهٖ مِنۡهُ اَكۡبَرُ عِنۡدَ اللّٰهِ ‌‌ۚ وَالۡفِتۡنَةُ اَکۡبَرُ مِنَ الۡقَتۡلِ‌ؕ وَلَا يَزَالُوۡنَ يُقَاتِلُوۡنَكُمۡ حَتّٰى يَرُدُّوۡكُمۡ عَنۡ دِيۡـنِکُمۡ اِنِ اسۡتَطَاعُوۡا ‌ؕ وَمَنۡ يَّرۡتَدِدۡ مِنۡكُمۡ عَنۡ دِيۡـنِهٖ فَيَمُتۡ وَهُوَ کَافِرٌ فَاُولٰٓٮِٕكَ حَبِطَتۡ اَعۡمَالُهُمۡ فِى الدُّنۡيَا وَالۡاٰخِرَةِ ‌‌ۚ وَاُولٰٓٮِٕكَ اَصۡحٰبُ النَّارِ‌‌ۚ هُمۡ فِيۡهَا خٰلِدُوۡنَ‏ ﴿۲۱۷﴾

“The Revelation had mentioned that a thing most serious with Allah was to turn (men) from the way of Allah, and to disbelieve in Him and in the Holy Mosque, and to drive his people from there…for persecution is worse than killing”. (Qur’an 2.217)

The retrieval of their goods, however, was not their only reason for wanting to attack the caravan. The Muslims did not think they should simply remain safely in Medinah; they wanted to spread the message of Islam. They thus felt that if Quraysh wanted freedom to trade in safety, then the Muslims must also have freedom to believe in Allah, to follow His Messenger ﷺ, and spread His Word. It was, therefore, thought that the best, and only way to get Quraysh to understand this was to attack what was most important to them-a caravan.

Abu Sufyan, in the meantime, heard about the Muslims’ plan and quickly sent a message to Quraysh in Mecca, telling them that the caravan was in danger and asking for help. As a result nearly all Quraysh came out to help him defend the caravan. There were a thousand men and two hundred horses. The women also went along to cheer the men on with their singing. Unaware of this, the Prophet ﷺ set out with his followers. It was the month of Ramadan and the Muslims were fasting.

There were only three hundred and five of them, most of them Ansar, men from Medinah. With them they had three horses and seventy camels, on which they rode in turns.

They arrived in the area of Badr, some distance from Medinah where they made camp and waited for news of the caravan. Then they heard that Quraysh had set out from Mecca with a strong army. The situation had suddenly changed. They were no longer going to make a raid on a caravan-they were going to have to fight Quraysh. The Prophet ﷺ gathered his men around him to find out what they wanted to do. First Abu Bakr, and then „Umar, spoke for the Muslims who had come from Mecca. They said they would obey the Prophet ﷺ. But the Prophet ﷺ wanted to hear the opinion of the Ansar, because he did not want to force them into doing something they did not want to do.

Sa‟d Ibn Mu‟adh, one of the leaders of the Ansar, got up and said, we believe in you and we swear before all men that what you have brought is the truth.

The Prophet ﷺ was greatly encouraged by these words and so it was agreed to fight. Abu Sufyan learned where the Muslims were camped. He changed the course of the caravan and quickly took it out of their reach. He then sent word to Quraysh telling them that the caravan was safe and that they should return to Mecca. But the leaders of Quraysh were proud and stubborn men. They refused to return as they had made up their minds to show everyone how powerful they were by destroying the Muslims. Now there was a wadi, or valley, at Badr, with wells on the side nearest Medina, and it was here that the Muslims took up position facing the valley with the wells behind them. Quraysh meanwhile placed themselves on the other side of the valley. The Muslims then dug a reservoir, filled it with water from one of the wells, and made a barrier around it. Then they stopped up the wells. In this way the Muslims had enough drinking water for themselves, while the Meccans would have to cross the valley and fight the Muslims in order to get water. The night before the battle, while the Muslims slept peacefully, a heavy rain fell.

بِسۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
اِذۡ يُغَشِّيۡكُمُ النُّعَاسَ اَمَنَةً مِّنۡهُ وَيُنَزِّلُ عَلَيۡكُمۡ مِّنَ السَّمَآءِ مَآءً لِّيُطَهِّرَكُمۡ بِهٖ وَيُذۡهِبَ عَنۡكُمۡ رِجۡزَ الشَّيۡطٰنِ وَلِيَرۡبِطَ عَلٰى قُلُوۡبِكُمۡ وَيُثَبِّتَ بِهِ الۡاَقۡدَامَؕ‏ ﴿۱۱﴾ 

“When He made the slumber fall upon you as a reassurance from Him and sent down water from the sky upon you, in order that He might purify you, and remove from you the fear of Satan, and strengthen your hearts and make firm (your) fret thereby”. (Qur’an 8.11)

On the morning of Friday, the 17th of Ramadan, 2 A.H., (March 17th, AD), the two armies advanced and drew closer to one another. The rain been heavier on the side of Quraysh, making the ground soft and difficult. On the side of the Muslims, however, the rain had backed the sand down hard, making it easy for them to march. The Prophet ﷺ preferred the men to fight in ranks. As they prepared to march he noticed someone had stepped out in front of the others.

Having examined the ranks, the Prophet ﷺ then went to a shelter made of palm branches from which he could command the battle. Abu Bakr stayed with him, while Sa‟d ibn Mu’adh, with several of the Ansar, stood outside guarding the hut. When the Prophet ﷺ saw the enormous Quraysh army descending the hill into the valley, with all their banners and drums, he began to pray for the help which Allah had promised him.

These were some of his words. ‘0 Allah, here come Quraysh full of vanity and pride, who oppose Thee and call Thy Messenger a liar. O Allah, if this little band (the Muslims) perishes today, there will be none left in the land to worship Thee.’

بِسۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
اِذۡ تَسۡتَغِيۡثُوۡنَ رَبَّكُمۡ فَاسۡتَجَابَ لَـكُمۡ اَنِّىۡ مُمِدُّكُمۡ بِاَلۡفٍ مِّنَ الۡمَلٰۤٮِٕكَةِ مُرۡدِفِيۡنَ‏ ﴿۹﴾  وَمَا جَعَلَهُ اللّٰهُ اِلَّا بُشۡرٰى وَلِتَطۡمَٮِٕنَّ بِهٖ قُلُوۡبُكُمۡ‌ۚ وَمَا النَّصۡرُ اِلَّا مِنۡ عِنۡدِ اللّٰهِ‌ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰهَ عَزِيۡزٌ حَكِيۡمٌ‏ ﴿۱۰﴾ 

“When ye sought help of your Lord and He answered you (saying): I will help you with a thousand of the angels, rank on rank. Allah appointed it only as good tidings, and that your hearts might thereby be at ease. Victory cometh only by the help of Allah. Lo! Allah is Mighty, Wise”. (Qur’an 8. 9-10)

At first the battle began in single combat when one of Quraysh swore that he would drink from the Muslims’ reservoir and then destroy it, or die in the attempt. Hamzah, the Prophet’s uncle, came forward to face him and killed him. Three of the most important men of Quraysh then stepped forward and gave out a challenge for single combat. The Prophet ﷺ sent out ‘Ali, Hamzah, and Ubaydah ibn al-Harith, to face them. It was not long before Hamzah and Ali had killed their opponents.

As for ‘Ubaydah, he had wounded his enemy but was wounded himself, and so his two companions killed the wounded Meccan and carried ‘Ubaydah back to the safety of the Muslim ranks. After this, the two armies attacked each other and fighting broke out all around. The sky was filled with arrows. The Muslim army held its ground against the great army of Quraysh and even though the Muslims were much fewer in number, they gained a great victory, destroying the Meccan army and killing most of its leaders. Among the leading Meccans who died were Abu Jahl and Umayyah ibn Khalaf, who was killed by his former slave, Bilal. Seeing that their leaders were nearly all dead, the remainder of Quraysh retreated. The Prophet ﷺ sent word to Medinahto tell them of the victory. He then gathered up the spoils of war and divided them equally among the Muslims. Some of the Meccans had been taken prisoner and the Prophet ﷺ gave orders that they should be treated well until their relatives from among Quraysh came to fetch them.

بِسۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
فَلَمۡ تَقۡتُلُوۡهُمۡ وَلٰـكِنَّ اللّٰهَ قَتَلَهُمۡ وَمَا رَمَيۡتَ اِذۡ رَمَيۡتَ وَ لٰـكِنَّ اللّٰهَ رَمٰى‌ ۚ وَلِيُبۡلِىَ الۡمُؤۡمِنِيۡنَ مِنۡهُ بَلَاۤءً حَسَنًا‌ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰهَ سَمِيۡعٌ عَلِيۡمٌ‏ ﴿۱۷﴾ 

“Ye (Muslims) did not slay them, but Allah slew them and thou (Muhammad) thre west not when thou didst throw, but Allah threw, so that He might test the believers by a fair test from Him. Lo! Allah is Allhearing, All-Knowing”. (Qur’an 8.17)

THE BATTLE OF UHUD

When the survivors of the defeated Quraysh at Badr to Mecca gathered to speak with Abu Sufyan. They said, ‘Muhammad has best men, so help us to fight him so that we may avenge those we have lost.’ In order to do this it was agreed that everyone who had had a share in the caravan should put his profits towards the cost of a new army, which would be three times as big as the one at Badr. Among those who joined the new army was an Abyssinian slave called Wahshi; who was known for his accuracy with the spear. His master, Jubayr ibn al-Mut‟im, said to him, ‘Go with the army and if you kill Hamzah, the uncle of Muhammad, in revenge for my uncle’s death, I will set you free when Hind, Abu Sufyan’s wife, heard about this she sent a Wahshi to say that she would clothe him in gold and silk if he would carry out his master’s wish, for she, too, wanted Hamzah dead because he had both her father and brother.

While the Meccans made their plans, the Prophet’s uncle, „Abbas, one the few Muslims still living in Mecca, sent a letter of warning to the Prophet ﷺ in Medina. He told him that Quraysh were setting out with a huge arm for Uhud, a place just outside Medina. On receiving this timely warning the Prophet ﷺ gathered his companions around him to discuss what they should do. He thought it would be better to wait for the enemy inside city rather than go out to meet them, because it would be easier to defend Medinah from inside the city walls. But the young Muslims were go out and face Quraysh.

They said, ‘0 Prophet of Allah, lead us out against our enemies, or else they will think we are too cowardly and too weak to fight them.’ One of the rulers of Medina, „Abd Allah ibn Ubayy, however, agreed with the Prophet ﷺ and advised him to remain in the city, saying, ‘Whenever we have gone out to fight an enemy we have met with disaster, but none has ever come in against us without being defeated.’ But when the Prophet ﷺ saw that the majority were in favor of going out to meet Quraysh, he decided to do so, and after the Friday prayer he put on his armor.

The Muslims then set out with one thousand men in the direction of Mount Uhud which overlooks Medina. The enemy was camped on the plain below the mountain where they were laying waste the crops of the Muslims.’Abd Allah ibn Ubayy was angry that the Prophet ﷺ had not followed his advice and after going part of the way, turned back for Medina, taking one third of the entire army with him. This left the Prophet ﷺ with only seven hundred men to meet the enormous Meccan army, which numbered three thousand.

The remainder of the Mus1ims went on until they reached the mountain of Uhud. There the Prophet ﷺ ordered them to stand in ranks in front of the mountain, so that they would be protected from behind. He then positioned fifty archers on top of the mountain, giving them the following order: ‘Keep the Meccan cavalry away from us with your arrows and don’t let them come against us from the rear, whether the battle goes in our favor or against us. Whatever happens keep to your places so that we cannot be attacked from your direction, even if you see us being slain or booty being taken.’ When the Muslims were in position, the Prophet ﷺ held up his sword and said, ‘Who will use this sword with its right?’ This was a great honor and many men rose to claim it, but the Prophet ﷺ decided to give it to Abu Dujanah, a fearless warrior.

Then the battle commenced. The Muslims were well organized and had the advantage, because although Quraysh had more than four times as many men, they were tired from their journey and thus not ready to fight. As a result, the Muslims were able to make a surprise attack, led by Abu Dujanah, who was wearing a brilliant red turban. As the fighting increased the Quraysh women, led by Hind, began to beat their drums to urge their men on. They called out poems to encourage their men to be brave. ‘If you advance, we hug you, spread soft rugs beneath you; if you retreat, we leave you. Leave and no more love you.’ Abu Dujanah said: ‘I saw someone urging the enemy on, shouting wildly, and I made for him, but when I lifted my sword against him he screamed and I saw that it was a woman; I respected the Apostle’s sword too much to use it on a woman.’ That woman was Hind. As usual, Hamzah, the Prophet’s uncle, fought with great courage, but while leading the Muslims in a fierce attack, which nearly defeated the Meccans, he was suddenly and cruelly struck down by the slave Wahshi.

Later, Wahshi told how it happened: ‘I was watching Hamzah while he was killing men with his sword. I… aimed my spear until I was sure it would the mark and hurled it at him. He came on towards me but collapsed and fell. I left him there until he died, then I came and took back my spear. Then I went back to the camp because I did not want to kill anyone but him. My only aim in killing him was to gain my freedom.’ The Quraysh warriors were soon scattered and forced to retreat. It looked as though they had been defeated! Seeing this, forty of the fifty Muslims archers on top of the mountain ran down from their position to collect booty, for the

Quraysh army had left many of their belongings behind. The archers rushed to take what they could, forgetting the Prophet’s orders. Khalid Ibn al-Walid, Commander of the Quraysh cavalry, saw what’ happening and quickly turned his men around and ordered them to attack the Muslims from behind. The Muslims were taken completely by surprise. The Quraysh then began attacking from both sides at once. Many Muslims were killed and instead of winning they began to lose the battle. To add to the confusion, it was rumored that the Prophet ﷺ had killed. When the Muslims heard this they were at a loss to know what to do. Then a man named Anas called out, ‘Brothers! If Muhammad ﷺ has been killed what will your lives be worth without him? Don’t think about living or dying. Fight for Allah. Get up and die the way Muhammad ﷺ died!‟ and on hearing these words the Muslims took courage.

There had been several cavalry attacks on the position held by the Prophet (pbuh) and his companions and the Prophet’s cheek had been badly gashed. As the Meccans closed in again he called out, ‘Who will sell his life for us?’ At this, five Ansar got up and fought until they were killed, one by one. Their places were soon taken, however, by a number of Muslims who drove off the attackers. Amongst the defending Muslims was Abu Dujanah who put his arms around the Prophet (pbuh) and made himself into a human shield. Throughout the remainder of the battle he held on to the Prophet ﷺ, but as the fighting drew to a close he suddenly let go. Abu Dujanah was dead, killed by the many arrows in his back that had been aimed at the Prophet ﷺ. With the defeat of the Muslims, Quraysh were at last avenged. As they left the field of battle Abu Sufyan called out to his men, ‘You have done well; victory in war goes by turns today in exchange for Badr!’ When he heard this, the Prophet ﷺ told Umar to answer him, saying, ‘Allah is Most High and Most Glorious. We are not equal. Our dead are in Paradise and your dead are in Hell!’ The Muslim soldiers then followed the departing Quraysh part of the way to make sure they were not going to attack Medinah.

After the enemy had left, the Prophet ﷺ made his way around the Battle-field to see the extent of the Muslim losses. Many of the most faithful Muslims had been killed. Among the dead, the Prophet (pbuh) found the body of his closest friend and uncle, Hamzah, who had been killed by the slave, Wahshi. At the sight of this, the Prophet ﷺ said, ‘There will never be a moment as sad for me as this.’ Hamzah’s sister, Safiyya, came to pray and ask forgiveness for her brother, saying ‘We belong to Allah and to Allah we are returning.’ After the Prophet ﷺ had prayed over the many dead, he said, ‘I tell you that no one has been wounded in Allah’s cause but Allah will remember him and on the Day of Resurrection will raise him from the dead. Look for the one who has learned most of the Qur’an and put him in front of his companions in the grave.’ They were buried where they had fallen as martyrs.

Of them Allah says:

بِسۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
وَلَا تَحۡسَبَنَّ الَّذِيۡنَ قُتِلُوۡا فِىۡ سَبِيۡلِ اللّٰهِ اَمۡوَاتًا ‌ؕ بَلۡ اَحۡيَآءٌ عِنۡدَ رَبِّهِمۡ يُرۡزَقُوۡنَۙ‏ ﴿۱۶۹﴾  فَرِحِيۡنَ بِمَاۤ اٰتٰٮهُمُ اللّٰهُ مِنۡ فَضۡلِهٖ ۙ وَيَسۡتَبۡشِرُوۡنَ بِالَّذِيۡنَ لَمۡ يَلۡحَقُوۡا بِهِمۡ مِّنۡ خَلۡفِهِمۡۙ اَ لَّا خَوۡفٌ عَلَيۡهِمۡ وَلَا هُمۡ يَحۡزَنُوۡنَ‌ۘ‏ ﴿۱۷۰﴾

“Do not think that those, who were killed for Allah’s sake are dead. Nay, they are alive. With their Lord they have provision. Jubilant (are they) because of that which Allah hath bestowed upon them of His bounty, rejoicing for the sake of those that have not yet joined them because they have nothing to fear or grieve over”.(Qur’an 3.169-170)

It is said that the Prophet ﷺ swore that no Muslim who had died for his beliefs would want to come back to life for a single hour, even if he could own the whole world, unless he could return and fight for Allah and be killed a second time. The Muslims realised that their defeat had been caused by their disobedience to the Prophet ﷺ. The Qur’an tells us that the Muslims had been tested by Allah at Uhud and had failed but that Allah forgave them their weakness.

بِسۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
وَمَا كَانَ لِنَفۡسٍ اَنۡ تَمُوۡتَ اِلَّا بِاِذۡنِ اللّٰهِ كِتٰبًا مُّؤَجَّلًا ؕ وَ مَنۡ يُّرِدۡ ثَوَابَ الدُّنۡيَا نُؤۡتِهٖ مِنۡهَا ‌ۚ وَمَنۡ يُّرِدۡ ثَوَابَ الۡاٰخِرَةِ نُؤۡتِهٖ مِنۡهَا ‌ؕ وَسَنَجۡزِى الشّٰكِرِيۡنَ‏ ﴿۱۴۵﴾

“Some of you there are that desire this world, and some of you there are that desire the next world. Then He turned you from them, that He might try you; and He has forgiven you; and Allah is bounteous to the believers”. (Qur’an 3.145)

The Battle Of The Trench

When the Prophet ﷺ first arrived in Medinah, the Jews who were living there had welcomed him. The Prophet ﷺ had returned their greeting, as he wished to be on good terms with them. An agreement was also reached between the Muslims and the Jews, which gave the Jews the freedom to practice their religion and which also set out their rights and their duties. Among these duties was that in the case of war with Quraysh, the Jews would fight on the side of the Muslims.

Despite this agreement, however, some of the Jewish tribes, who resented the Prophet’s presence in Medinah, soon began to cause trouble amongst the Muslims. They tried to set the Muslim Emigrants from Mecca and the Ansar against each other. The troublemakers were given many warnings but they continued to be a nuisance. In the end, the Muslims had no choice but to drive them from Medinah. A new agreement was offered those Jews who remained but the trouble did not end there. One of the Jewish tribes, the Bani Nadir plotted to murder the Prophet ﷺ but their plan was discovered and they, too, were exiled from the city. Knowing that they could not defeat the Muslims themselves, some of the leaders of the exiled Jews secretly went to Mecca to enlist the help of Quraysh. Knowing what the Meccans would like to hear, they pretended to believe in the same things. They said that they thought that the old Arab tradition was better than the teachings of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ and that they believed that the Quraysh religion of worshipping many idols was better than the Prophet’s with only one God. Then the Jews told them that if all the Arab tribes attacked Medinah, the Jews inside the city would help to defeat the Prophet ﷺ and Islam once and for all.

The leaders of Quraysh were pleased to hear all this and seizing on what seemed to them a very good opportunity, agreed to the plan and began to gather together a formidable army. In the meantime in Medinah, only one Jewish tribe, the Bani Quraydhah, refused to betray the betrayal of the Muslims by the Jews did not surprise the Prophet ﷺ, who said of them: ‘The hearts of the Jews have become closed to the truth. They have forgotten what Muses taught them long ago that there is only one God.’

بِسۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
مَثَلُ الَّذِيۡنَ حُمِّلُوا التَّوۡرٰٮةَ ثُمَّ لَمۡ يَحۡمِلُوۡهَا كَمَثَلِ الۡحِمَارِ يَحۡمِلُ اَسۡفَارًا‌ ؕ بِئۡسَ مَثَلُ الۡقَوۡمِ الَّذِيۡنَ كَذَّبُوۡا بِاٰيٰتِ اللّٰهِ ‌ؕ وَاللّٰهُ لَا يَهۡدِى الۡقَوۡمَ الظّٰلِمِيۡنَ‏ ﴿۵﴾

The Treaty Of Hudaybiyah

 Ouraysh had tried to destroy Islam but had failed. The number of Muslims grew and their armies increased from three hundred at the battle of Badr, seven hundred at the battle of “Uhud, to three thousand at the battle of the Trench. After the annual fast of Ramadan, the Prophet ﷺ had a dream, which indicated that the Muslims should go to Mecca for the pilgrimage. One thousand and four hundred Muslims got ready to go with him on the Lesser Pilgrimage called ‘the `Umra’. They dressed in white and went unarmed to show Quraysh that they had come to make the pilgrimage and not to fight. When Quraysh heard that the Prophet ﷺ was on his way, they sent troops with Khalid Ibn al-Walid to stop the Muslims from entering the city. To avoid meeting this small army the Prophet ﷺ changed his route and led the men through rugged mountain passes. When they reached easier ground he told them, ‘Say, we

ask Allah’s forgiveness and we repent towards Him ‘At Hudaybiyah, south of Mecca, the Prophet’s camel knelt down and refused to go any further. The Muslims thought she was either stubborn or tired, but the Prophet ﷺ said: ‘The same power that once stopped the elephant from entering Mecca is now stopping us!’

He then ordered them to make camp, which they did, although they all hoped they would travel on to the sacred Ka’bah the following day.

On setting up camp, the believers were dismayed to find that the springs were almost dry. When he heard this the Messenger of Allah ﷺ instructed a man called Najiyah to take the bowl of water in which he had performed his ablutions, pour it into the hollows where the small amount of spring water lay, and stir it with his arrows. Najiyah did as he was told and the fresh water gushed up so suddenly that he was hardly able to get out of the way in time.

Messengers were sent to Quraysh to tell them that the Muslims had come only for the pilgrimage, to worship Allah at the Holy Ka’bah, and that they wanted to enter the city peacefully. But Quraysh took no notice. Finally, the Prophet’s son-in-law, ‘Uthman Ibn Affan, a wise and respected man, was chosen to go, and the Muslims settled down to wait and see what news he would bring back. After they had waited a long time, the Muslims became very worried. At last they decided that he must have been killed. A state similar to that of Revelation then came upon the Prophet ﷺ. He gathered the Muslims around him under an acacia tree and asked them to swear their allegiance to him, which they did. This pact, which is mentioned in the Qur’an, became known as the Treaty of

Radwan (which means Paradise). Shortly after, `Uthman Ibn Affan returned and the Muslims were relieved to see that no harm had come to him. Some Meccan warriors tried to attack the Muslim camp but were captured and brought before the Prophet ﷺ, who forgave them when they promise to stop attacking the Muslims. Soon after this, official messengers came from Quraysh and talks began for a peaceful settlement.

A man called Suhayl ibn ‘Amr was sent by the Meccans to work out a treaty. When the Prophet ﷺ asked ‘Ali to write ‘In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful’, on the top of the page, Suhayl objected, saying ‘Write only: bismik Allahumma (in Thy name, O Allah). I don’t know him as al-Rahman (the Most Gracious), al-Rahim (the most Merciful).’ The Prophet ﷺ agreed and dictated: ‘This is a treaty between Muhammad the Messenger of Allah and Suhayl ibn ‘Amr.”Stop!’ cried Suhayl, ‘I don’t believe that you are Rasulallah (the Messenger of Allah). If I thought you were Allah’s Messenger, I wouldn’t be fighting against you, would I?’ Calmly, the Prophet ﷺ agreed that he should be referred to in the treaty as Muhammad’, son of ‘Abd Allah. The

Muslims were very upset at this, and ‘Umar furiously cried out, ‘Are you not Allah’s Messenger, and are we not Muslims? How can we accept such treatment when we are right and they are wrong? This will make people laugh at our religion!’ But the Prophet ﷺ knew what was best and the Treaty of Hudaybiyah was signed.

In this treaty the two sides agreed to stop fighting for a period of ten years. It was also agreed that the Muslims should go back to Medinah immediately but that they could return the following year for the pilgrimage. This pilgrimage would last three days. In addition, the treaty allowed Muslims wishing to leave Islam and return to Mecca to do so. It also permitted Meccans to leave and become Muslims provided they had the permission of their guardians. The Muslims agreed to send any Meccan who did not have their guardian’s permission back to Mecca. Suhayl’s son had come with his father with the idea of joining the Prophet ﷺ but when the treaty was signed he was, of course, forced to return to Mecca. He cried bitterly. The Prophet ﷺ said, ‘O Abu

Jandal, be patient and control yourself. Allah will provide relief and find a way out for you and others like you.’

The majority of the Muslims were very disappointed when they heard the terms of the agreement and thought that it should not have been accepted. They did not realize that this was in fact a great victory for the

Prophet ﷺ, which Allah would later confirm in a Revelation. The agreement made sure that the following year they would enter Mecca peacefully, and in time would result in Muslims becoming stronger and more respected throughout Arabia. At the time the treaty was signed the Muslims could not have foreseen that the number of people who would travel to Medinah to become Muslims in following year would be greater than in all the years before. Before the Muslims departed, they followed the Prophet’s example of making sacrifice and either shaving or cutting their hair. Even though they were unable to visit the sacred mosque, their pilgrimage was accepted by Allah because it had been their true intention.

On the return journey to Medinah, the ‘Victory’ chapter of the Qur’an was revealed to the Prophet ﷺ. It begins:

In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

بِسۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
اِنَّا فَتَحۡنَا لَكَ فَتۡحًا مُّبِيۡنًا ۙ‏ ﴿۱﴾  لِّيَـغۡفِرَ لَكَ اللّٰهُ مَا تَقَدَّمَ مِنۡ ذَنۡۢبِكَ وَ مَا تَاَخَّرَ وَيُتِمَّ نِعۡمَتَهٗ عَلَيۡكَ وَيَهۡدِيَكَ صِرَاطًا مُّسۡتَقِيۡمًا ۙ‏ ﴿۲﴾  وَّ يَنۡصُرَكَ اللّٰهُ نَصۡرًا عَزِيۡزًا‏ ﴿۳﴾

“Surely We have given thee (O Muhammad) a clear victory, That Allah may forgive thee of thy sin That which is past and that which is to come, And may complete His blessings upon thee, And may guide thee on the right path, And that Allah may help thee with mighty help”. (Qur’an 48.1-3)

Now most of those who left Mecca to join the Prophet ﷺ without the consent of their guardians and were turned back by him as agreed, Did not in fact return to Mecca, but lived instead in groups along the seashore. Then they were joined by others who had left Mecca but these groups began to endanger Quraysh caravans which were passing by and disrupted their trade because of this, Quraysh told the Prophet ﷺ that if he wanted to take these new Muslims, they would not ask for them to be returned. The young men, therefore, joined the Prophet ﷺ and the people in Mecca and Medinah grew more at ease with one another. The young men from the seashore were shortly followed by those Muslims who were still living in Abyssinia, and soon the numbers of believers in

Medinah had doubled.

About this time, Khalid Ibn al-Walid, the great warrior who had defeated the Muslims at Uhud, set out from Mecca for Medinah. Along the way he met ‘Amr Ibn al-‘As, the clever speaker who had pursued the Muslims when they fled to Abyssinia. ‘Amr, who had attempted to find asylum in Abyssinia, had just returned from that country, the Negus having urged him to enter Islam. He asked Khalid, ‘Where are you going?’ Khalid replied, ‘The way has become clear. The man is certainly a Prophet, and by Allah, I am going to become a Muslim. How much longer should I delay?’ ‘Amr Ibn al-As answered, ‘I am travelling for the same reason. So they both travelled on to Medinah to join the

Prophet ﷺ. The two men were, however, worried about meeting the Prophet ﷺ because of having fought against the Muslims in the past.

Therefore, ‘Amr came before Allah’s Messenger he said, ‘O Prophet, will my past faults be forgiven and no mention made of what has gone before?’ The Prophet ﷺ replied, ‘Amr, Islam wipes away everything that happened before, as does the hijrah.’ A year after the signing of the Treaty of Hudaybiyah, the Prophet ﷺ was able to lead two thousand pilgrims on the ‘Umra. Quraysh

vacated Mecca and watched the rites from the hills above the city. The agreed period of three days was observed, after which the Muslims returned to Medinah.

“The likeness of those who are entrusted with the Law of Moses, yet apply it not, is as the likeness of the ass carrying books. Evil is the likeness of the people who deny the revelations of Allah. And Allah guideth not wrongdoing folk”. (Qur’an 62.5)

The Muslims wondered how they could defend Medinah. They heard that Abu Sufyan was coming to attack them with an enormous army which included many other Arab tribes, as well as Quraysh. What were they to do with only a single week to prepare? The Prophet ﷺ and his men knew that it would be impossible for them to fight off all these tribes! The only thing they could do was to stay inside the city and try to defend it as best they could. Now among the people of Medinah was a Persian named Salman, who had to live in the city some time before the Prophet’s arrival there. As a convert to Christianity he had traveled to Medinah after Christian sages had told him that a Prophet would be born in Arabia. On arriving in he was, however, sold into slavery by the merchants with whom he had travelled. Later he became a Muslim, gained his freedom and became a member of the Prophet’s household.

When the people gathered to discuss a plan of action against the approaching enemy, Salman was present and it was he who suggested that they should dig a trench around the city. The Prophet ﷺ thought this a good idea, so the Muslims set to work, although it was in the middle of winter. They worked day and night, digging the trench as quickly as possible. The Prophet ﷺ himself carried rocks and when the men were tired he gave them the will to carry on. Someone later recalled how beautiful he looked, dressed in a red cloak with dust upon his breast and his dark hair nearly reaching his shoulders. There was little food at this time and the men were often hungry as they worked. On one occasion, however, a little girl gave some dates to the Prophet ﷺ, which he spread out on a cloth. The men were then called to eat and the dates kept increasing in number until everyone had been fed. Even after everyone had eaten their fill, the dates continued to increase so that there were more than the cloth could hold. Similarly, there is the story of the lamb that has come down to us from one who was there: ‘We worked with the Apostle at the trench. I had a half-grown lamb and I thought it would be a good thing to cook it for Allah’s Messenger. I told my wife to grind barley and make some bread for us. I killed the lamb and we roasted it for the Prophet ﷺ. When night fell and he was

about to leave the trench, I told him we had prepared bread and meat and

invited him to our home. I wanted him to come on his own, but when I said this he sent someone to call all the men to come along. Everyone arrived and the food was served. He blessed it and invoked the Name of Allah over it. Then he ate and so did all of the others. As soon as one lot were satisfied, another group came until all the diggers had eaten enough, but still there was food to spare.

On March 24, 627 A.D, Abu Sufyan arrived with more than ten thousand men. The Muslims numbered only three thousand. Quraysh and their allies surrounded Medinah but between the two armies was the long, wide trench.

The Prophet ﷺ and his men stayed behind this trench for nearly a month defending the city against their more powerful enemy. Many times warriors tried to cross the trench and enter the city, but each time they were pushed back by the Muslims. The Muslims were afraid that if any did manage to cross over, the Jews inside Medinah would join forces with them and the Muslims would be beaten. The Jewish tribe of Bani Quraydhah, who had stood by the, agreement with the Muslims, were pressed by a Jewish emissary from the enemy without, to break their promise. Eventually they agreed to do so and when the news of this reached the Prophet ﷺ and his companions they were greatly troubled. Sa’d ibn Mu’adh, the leader of the tribe of Aws, was sent by the Prophet ﷺ with two other men to find out if this were true.

When they arrived in the part of Medinah where the Jews lived, they found were

even worse than they had previously thought. Sa’d ibn Mu’adh, whose tribe was closely allied with the Bani Quraydhah, tried to persuade their leader not to break the treaty with the Muslims, but he refused to listen. This meant that the Muslims could not relax their guard for one moment, for they were now threatened not only by the enemy beyond the trench, but by the Bani Qurayzah, within the walls of the city.

Things became more difficult for the Muslims day by day. It was extremely cold and food began to run out. To make matters worse, the Bani Qurayzah began openly and actively to join forces with the other Jews and cut off all supplies to the Muslims, including food. The enemies of Islam then planned how to capture Medinah. The situation looked desperate and the Prophet ﷺ prayed to Allah

to Allah to help the Muslims defeat their enemies. That very night a sandstorm blew up which buried the tents of Quraysh. The storm continued for three days and three nights making it impossible for the enemy to light a fire to cook a meal or warm themselves by.

On one of these dark nights the Prophet ﷺ asked one of his men, Hudhayfah Ibn al-Yaman, to go on a dangerous mission. The Prophet ﷺ told him to make his way across the trench to the enemy camp where he should find out what they were doing. With much difficulty Hudhayfah crossed the trench and made his way to a circle of Quraysh warriors talking in the darkness. He sat near them, but as there was no fire, no one noticed him. He then heard Abu Sufyan’s voice: ‘Let us go home!’ he said. ‘We have had enough. The horses and camels are dying, the tents keep blowing away, most of the equipment has been lost, and we cannot cook our food. There is no reason to stay!’

Shortly after hearing this Hudhayfah made his way quickly and quietly back across the trench and the next morning the Muslims rejoiced to find that what he had overheard had come true-Quraysh and their allies had gone away! The siege of Medinah had ended in a great victory for Islam. But this was not to be the end of the difficulties, for the Archangel Gabriel the Prophet ﷺ and told him that he should punish the Bani Qurayzah for betraying him and the Muslims. On hearing this, the Prophet ﷺ ordered the Muslims to march against the Bani Qurayzah as they hid in their fortress. The Muslims besieged them for twenty-five days until they finally gave in. On surrendering, they asked the Prophet ﷺ to let someone judge their case, and he agreed. He also allowed them to choose who would give the ruling. The man chosen to judge the Bani Qurayzah was Sa’d ibn Mu’adh, leader of the Aws, a tribe which had always protected the Qurayzah in the past. Sa’d ibn Mu’adh who had himself been wounded in the battle, decided that the Jews should be tried by their own Holy Law, according to which anyone who broke a treaty would be put to death.

As a result all the men of the Bani Qurayzah were executed and the women and children made captive. If the Jews had succeeded in their pact, Islam would have been destroyed. Instead from that day on, Medinah became a city where

only Muslims lived. Very soon after peace had been restored to Medinah, Sa’d ibn Mu’adh died of his wounds. It was said that the Archangel Gabriel came in the middle of that night and said to the Prophet ﷺ ‘0 Muhammad, who is

this dead man? When he arrived, the doors of heaven opened and the Throne of Allah shook.’ The Prophet ﷺ got up as soon as he heard this, but found that Sa’d was already dead. Although he had been a heavy man, the men who carried his body to the grave found it quite light. They were told that the angels were helping them.

When he was buried, the Prophet ﷺ said three times ‘Subhan Allah!’ (Glory be to Alost Great!). When asked why he did this, he replied, ‘The grave was tight for this good man, until Allah eased it for

him.’ This is one of the rewards that Allah gives to martyrs and good Muslims.

The Invitation

The peace which the Treaty of Hudaybiyah guaranteed for ten years meant people could travel from all over Arabia to visit the Prophet ﷺ and a great many came to declare their Islam. Also, during this period the Prophet ﷺ decided that the time had come for his message to be taken to other countries, so he sent trusted companions with letters, telling of his message, to the leaders of the most powerful nations of the day. It is recorded that he said, Allah has sent me as a mercy to all men, so take the message from me that Allah has mercy on you.‟ It is also recorded that some time before, when the Prophet ﷺ was digging before the Battle of the Trench, three flashes of lightning had blared forth from a rock he had been stricking to remove. These flashes had shown him the fortresses of the civilizations to the South, East, and West which were soon to come into Islam.

Now at the time the Prophet ﷺ sent out his message. Abu Sufyan and some other members of Quraysh were trading in Syria, a province of the Eastern Roman Empire (later to be called Byzantium). Also, at about this time the Emperor Heraclius, ruler of this Empire, had a dream, and sadly told visitors to his court in Syria: „I saw our Empire fall and victory go to a people who do not follow our religion.’ At first he thought this must refer to the Jews and he even had it in mind to kill all the Jews living under his rule. Just then an envoy from the governor of Basra arrived with a message for the Emperor: O Emperor Heraclius. there are some Arabs in the city who are speaking of wonderful happenings in their country’, and he then told of what he had heard about the Prophet ﷺ. On hearing this Heraclius commanded his soldiers: ‘Go and find me someone who can tell me more about this.’

The soldiers, however, did not find those who had been talking about the Prophet ﷺ, but instead found Abu Sufyan and some of his companions and brought them before the Emperor. Heraclius asked, ‘Is there anyone among you who is a close relative of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ?’ Abu Sufyan replied, “I am.‟ So the Emperor addressed all the questions to him, thinking he would know the Prophet ﷺ best. He said, ‘Tell me what is the Prophet’s position in your tribe?” Abu Sufyan said, ‘he is a member of our most respected family. ‘Did anyone before him say the kinds of things he says?’ the Emperor went on. „No.‟ was the reply.’ And was he ever accused of lying or cheating?’ “Never.‟ And then the Emperor asked: “And what about his ideas and opinions, and his powers of reasoning?‟ “No one has ever had cause to doubt him or find fault with his reasoning‟, replied Abu Sufyan. ‘Who follows him, the proud or the humble?‟ “The humble.‟ “Do his followers increase or decrease?‟ “They increase‟, said Abu Sufyan, “none of his followers leave him.‟ The Emperor then turned to other matters and asked: “If he makes a treaty, does he keep it?‟ “Yes‟, Abu Sufyan replied. “Did you ever fight against him?‟ inquired the Emperor. To which Abu Sufyan answered: “Yes. Sometimes we won, sometimes he won, but he never broke his word in any agreement.‟

The emperor then asked: “What does he say people must do?‟ „To worship one God‟, said Abu Sufyan. “He forbids people to worship as their fathers worshipped, and says they must pray to Allah alone, give elms, keep their word, and fulfil their duties and responsibilities.”

 Abu Sufyan had spoken the truth even though he was an enemy of the prophet ﷺ, and did not become a Muslim until the very end of his life. But he was afraid to lie before the members of his caravan who were also there with him. The meeting ended with these words from the Emperor: “I see from this that he is indeed a prophet. You said that his followers do not leave him which proves they have true faith, for faith does not enter the heart and then go away. I knew he was coming and if what you say is true, he will surely conquer me. If I were with him now, I would wash his feet. You may leave now.”

It was not long after this that the messenger, Dihyah, arrived at the Syrian court bearing the Prophet Mohammed‟s letter which said, “If you accept Islam you will be safe and Allah will give you a double reward. If you do not, you will have to live with results of your decision.” Heraclius grabbed the letter. He was so upset he could hardly control himself. He said to Dihyah, “I know your master is a true prophet of Allah. Our books tell of his coming. If I were not afraid that the Romans would kill me, I would join Islam. You must visit Bishop Daghatir and tell him everything. His word is more respected among the people than mine.”

So Dihyah related the message to the Bishop and when he heard it, Daghatir said, “Yes, your master whom we call Ahmed is mentioned in our scriptures.” He then changed from his black ropes into white ones and went and spoke to the people gathered in the church. ‟O Romans, a letter has come to us from Ahmed, in which he calls us to Allah. I bear witness that there is no Divinity but Allah and that Ahmed is his slave and messenger.‟ (Ahmed is another name for the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ.)” But on hearing this the crowd grew angry and attacked Daghatir, beating him until he was dead.

Heraclius was afraid that the same thing would happen to him, so he spoke to his generals from a balcony saying, “O Romans! A man has written to me calling me to his religion I believe he is truly the prophet we have been told to expect. Let us follow him so that we can be happy in this world and the next.” The Romans cried out in anger when they heard this, so Heraclius quickly said, “I was only pretending; I wanted to see how strong your faith was. I am pleased to see that you are true to your religion.” Heraclius then suggested that they attack or give land to the Muslims in order to maintain peace, but the Romans refused. Realizing that he could do no more, and knowing that one day Islam would conquer Syria, Heraclius left the province and returned to Constantinople, the

capital of Eastern Roman Empire. As he rode away he turned around to look back and said, “Goodbye for the last time, O land of Syria!”

Meanwhile, another of the Prophet‟s messengers arrived at the palace of Chosroes, the Shah (or king) of Persia, where he was told by the royal guard: “When you see the Shah, you must bow and not lift your head until he speaks to you.” To this the Prophet‟s messenger replied, “I will never do that. I bow only to Allah.”

“Then the Shah will not accept the letter you bring‟, they said. And when the time came for the messenger to see him, the Shah was indeed very surprised to see the man holding his head high and refusing to kneel respectfully before him like everyone else. Nonetheless, the Shah still read out the letter:

 In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Most Merciful

“From Muhammad, Messenger of Allah to Chosroes, Shah of Persia.

Peace be upon those who follow the truth, who believe in Allah and His Prophet and who testify that there is no divinity but Allah and that Muhammad is His Messenger. I ask you in the Name of Allah, because I am His Messenger, to warn your people that if they do not accept His Message, they must live with the consequences. Become Muslim and you will be safe. If you refuse to tell them you will be to blame for the ignorance of your subjects”.

The Shah was furious when he read this and tore the letter into little pieces. When the messenger returned to Arabia and told the Prophet

ﷺ what Chosroes had done, the Prophet ﷺ said, ‘May Allah also tear his kingdom into little pieces.’ And several years later it happened just as the Prophet ﷺ had said it would.

As with Syria and Persia, a messenger was also sent to the Negus (or King) of Abyssinia, with the following letter:

بِسۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
هُوَ اللّٰهُ الَّذِىۡ لَاۤ اِلٰهَ اِلَّا هُوَ‌ۚ اَلۡمَلِكُ الۡقُدُّوۡسُ السَّلٰمُ الۡمُؤۡمِنُ الۡمُهَيۡمِنُ الۡعَزِيۡزُ الۡجَـبَّارُ الۡمُتَكَبِّرُ‌ؕ سُبۡحٰنَ اللّٰهِ عَمَّا يُشۡرِكُوۡنَ‏ ﴿۲۳﴾  هُوَ اللّٰهُ الۡخَـالِـقُ الۡبَارِئُ الۡمُصَوِّرُ‌ لَـهُ الۡاَسۡمَآءُ الۡحُسۡنٰى‌ؕ يُسَبِّحُ لَهٗ مَا فِى السَّمٰوٰتِ وَالۡاَرۡضِ‌ۚ وَهُوَ الۡعَزِيۡزُ الۡحَكِيۡمُ‏ ﴿۲۴﴾ 

“Peace. Praise be to Allah, the King, the All-Holy, the Peacemaker, the Keeper of Faith, the Watcher. “He is Allah, there is no divinity but He, the Sovereign Lord, the Holy One, the All-peaceable, the Keeper of Faith, the Guardian, the Majestic, the Compeller, the All-sublime. Glorified be Allah from all that they associate with Him”.(Qur’an 59.23)

 And I testify that Jesus, son of Mary, is the spirit of Allah and His Word which He cast to Mary the Virgin, the good, the pure, so that she conceived Jesus. Allah created him from His Spirit and His Breath as He created Adam by His Hand and His Breath. I call you to Allah, the Unique, without partner, to His obedience, and to follow me and to believe in that which came to me, for I am the Messenger of Allah. Peace be upon all those who follow true guidance.

The King of Abyssinia was a very wise man, and was thought by the world to be a good Christian. He had, of course, already heard of the Prophet ﷺ and his religion from the Muslims who had sought refuge in his country years before. He was deeply moved by the letter and when he came down from his throne it was not just to show his respect but also to declare that he was already a Muslim. He answered the Prophet’s letter with one of his own.

“To Muhammad the Prophet of Allah from the Negus al-Asham, King of Abyssinia. Assalamu aleikum 0 Prophet of Allah wa rahmatullah wa Barakatuhu.

There is none like Him who has guided me to Islam. I received your letter, O Messenger of Allah. Some of your followers, as well as your cousin Ja’far, still live here. I believe you are truly the Messenger of God and reaffirm the pledge of allegiance I made to you some time ago before your cousin Ja‟far, at whose hand I joined Islam and surrendered to the Lord of the Worlds.

A fourth messenger had, in the meantime, traveled by boat to Alexandria to meet the Muqawqis, the ruler of Egypt, who was a Coptic Christian. In his letter, the Prophet ﷺ invited the Muqawqis to accept Islam, because Christian who believed in the message of Jesus should also believe in him, for he had come with the same message from Allah. It read:

“From Muhammad, son of ‘Abd Allah to the great Copt. Peace he upon whoever follows the Truth. I beseech you to accept Islam. Become a Muslim. Allah will reward you twice. If you refuse, you will carry the blame for not allowing your people to share in this blessing”. The Muqawqis showed respect for what the letter said. He treated the messenger well, and sent many presents with him for

the Prophet ﷺ, but he did not become a Muslim. Although only Abyssinia responded to the Prophet’s call to Islam, all was not lost, for a few years later Persia, Syria and Egypt all became Muslim countries.

Entry Into Mecca

 Despite the improved relations between Mecca and Medinah after the signing of the Treaty of Hudaybiyah, the ten-year peace was to be broken by Quraysh who, with their allies, the Bani Bakr, attacked the Khuza‟ah tribe. Now Khuza‟ah were allies of the Muslims and when the Prophet ﷺ heard of the attack he immediately ordered his men to prepare for war. When they were ready he told them that their destination was Mecca and, as he did not want any fighting within the walls of the city, he told them they must move quickly and take the enemy by surprise. In this way the Meccans would not have time to prepare for war and, being surrounded would have to surrender. The Muslims would then be able to take the city without injury or loss of life to anyone.

When the Muslim army, which numbered ten thousand, set out for Mecca it was the month of Ramadan in the eighth year of the Hijrah. Many of the men kept the fast, even though they were not obliged to because they were travelling. Everyone was jubilant because they were going to Mecca, especially as some of them had not seen their homes in the city for eight long years. In the meantime, the Prophet’s uncle, al- ‘Abbas, had decided that the time had come for him and his wife to leave Mecca and join the Prophet ﷺ in Medinah. They did not, however, have to go far as after a distance of only twenty-five kilometers they

came across the Muslim camp. When the Prophet ﷺ saw them he said, ‘Uncle, your emigration is the last emigration. My prophecy is the last prophecy.’ Al-‘Abbas then joined the army and his wife went on to the safety of Medinah. Night fell and the Muslims made fires to light their camp.

The Meccans, looking out of the city, were amazed to see the many fires, and

Abu Sufyan went all over Mecca trying to find out whose camp it was. Suddenly he saw al-„Abbas riding towards him from the direction of the fires. He was returning as a messenger of peace from the Prophet ﷺ and said to Abu Sufyan, ‘The Muslims have come with a large army. They do not wish to fight, only to enter the city. It would be better to surrender and not fight. Come under my protection and meet the Prophet ﷺ.’ Abu Sufyan agreed, and got up behind al-Abbas, who was riding the Prophet‟s white mule. It was still night as they entered the Muslim camp. Each time they passed a fire, someone would call out, ‘Who goes there?’ None of them recognized the stranger as the leader of their enemy but all knew al-„Abbas and so let them through. As they passed by ‘Umar, however, he immediately recognized Abu Sufyan and yelled out, ‘Abu

Sufyan! The enemy of Allah!’ He ran after them intending to kill his enemy but al-„Abbas made the mule go faster.

They reached the Prophet’s tent just before „Umar who rushed in after them quite out of breath. ‘Umar begged the Prophet ﷺ, ‘O Messenger of Allah, let me end the life of Abu Sufyan, this enemy of Islam, who has led the Quraysh armies in their attacks on us!’ Al-„Abbas interrupted, saying, ‘I have sworn to

protect him during his time here whereupon the Prophet (pbuh) told his

uncle to take Abu Sufyan to his tent for the night. In the morning Abu Sufyan was taken to the Prophet (pbuh) who said, ‘Abu Sufyan! Have you not yet realized that there is no divinity but Allah?’ To this Abu Sufyan replied, ‘If there had been another he surely would Have helped me by now.‟ „Shame on you, Abu Sufyan’, responded the Prophet ﷺ, ‘it is time you realize that I am truly Allah’s Messenger.’ After a moment or two, Abu Sufyan, who remembered how

Umar had not been allowed to kill him, replied: ‘I can see you are a generous and forgiving man but I still cannot be sure of that.’ At this, al-Abbas, who had been standing nearby turned to him and said: “Believe as I do now.” Abu Sufyan stood quietly for a moment, then in a calm, clear voice swore in front of everyone, ‘there is no divinity but Allah, and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah.’

The Prophet ﷺ then told Abu Sufyan to go back to Mecca and tell the people that the Muslims would enter the city the next morning. Before he left, however, al-‘Abbas suggested to the Prophet ﷺ that as Abu Sufyan was a proud man, it would be good to give him an honourable position. The Prophet (pbuh) took this advice, saying to Abu Sufyan, ‘Tell the people that when we enter, anyone seeking refuge in your house will be safe.’ This was a great honor for Abu Sufyan. In addition, the Prophet ﷺ told him to assure the Meccans that

those who remained in their own homes or at the Ka‟bah would also be

protected. Abu Sufyan returned quickly to the city. He made straight for the hill

Hagar had climbed in her search for water and from which the Prophet ﷺ later spoke, and called upon Quraysh to come to him. Abu Sufyan then spoke to the people, ‘0 people of Mecca, the fires we saw all around us were the camp fires of Muhammad and his men. He has come with a strong army and there are too many for us to fight. It is best, therefore, to surrender. Anyone who stays in my house, or in his own home, or at the Ka’bah will be safe.’ Early next day, the Muslims entered Mecca from all sides. They had been ordered to cause no harm unless anyone tried to stop them entering.

When the Prophet ﷺ arrived, he got off his camel, bowed down on the ground and thanked Allah for this victory. When the unbelievers saw this, they knew that the Prophet (pbuh) had come in peace. People began leaving their homes and running towards the Ka‟bah. When they arrived there, they found the Prophet ﷺ performing the ritual encircling of the Ka’bah, the tawaf on his camel, surrounded by the Muslims. When he had finished, he said, ‘There no divinity except Allah and He has no partner. Men and women of Quraysh be not proud for all are equal; we are all the sons of Adam, and Adam was made of dust.’ Then he recited this verse to them:

بِسۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
يٰۤاَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اِنَّا خَلَقۡنٰكُمۡ مِّنۡ ذَكَرٍ وَّاُنۡثٰى وَجَعَلۡنٰكُمۡ شُعُوۡبًا وَّقَبَآٮِٕلَ لِتَعَارَفُوۡا‌ ؕ اِنَّ اَكۡرَمَكُمۡ عِنۡدَ اللّٰهِ اَ تۡقٰٮكُمۡ‌ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰهَ عَلِيۡمٌ خَبِيۡرٌ‏ ﴿۱۳﴾ 

“O mankind! Lo! We have created you male and female, and have made you nations and tribes so you may know each another. Surely the noblest of you, in the sight of Allah, is the best in conduct. Lo! Allah is All-knowing, All-aware”. (Qur’an 49.13)

After this he said to them: ‘O Quraysh, what do you think I am going to do to you?’ The people thought carefully before answering because they knew that according to the laws of war they could all be taken prisoner. They also knew, however, that the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ was generous, so they replied, “You will treat us as a kind nephew and a generous brother would.” To this he replied with the words used by the Prophet Joseph when his brothers came to Egypt: “God forgives you and He is the Most Merciful of the merciful.” Later the Prophet ﷺ went to the hill of Safa and there the crowd followed him and surged forward, taking his hand one by one, to declare themselves Muslim. He then turned to the Ka’bah and, pointing his staff at the three hundred and sixty-five idols which were placed there,

recited from the Qur’an:

بِسۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
وَقُلۡ جَآءَ الۡحَـقُّ وَزَهَقَ الۡبَاطِلُ‌ؕ اِنَّ الۡبَاطِلَ كَانَ زَهُوۡقًا‏ ﴿۸۱﴾ 

“… Truth has come and falsehood has vanished away. Lo! Falsehood is ever bound to vanish”. (Qur’an 17.81)

At this, each idol fell over onto its face. Together with his followers the Prophet ﷺ then proceeded to purify the Ka’bah, after which he ordered Bilal to climb on top of it and perform the call to prayer. Since then the call to prayer has been heard five times a day in Mecca.

The Ka’bah, the House of Allah, has served the purpose for which it was built by Abraham thousands of years ago, as a sanctuary for the worship of Allah, our Creator, and Mecca continues to be the spiritual centre of Islam. On the day Mecca was conquered, the Prophet (pbuh) addressed the people saying: ‘Allah made Mecca holy the day He created heaven and earth and it is the Holy of Holies until the Resurrection Day. It is not lawful for anyone who believes in Allah and the Last Day to shed blood therein, nor to cut down trees therein. It was not lawful for anyone before me and it will not be lawful for anyone after me.

Indeed it is not lawful for me except at this time, only Allah’s anger against his people makes it permissible. Mecca has now regained its former holiness. Let those here now go forth and tell others.’

The Lesson of Pride at The Valley Of Hunayn

 Islam flourished in Mecca and the Muslims became stronger and stronger. But south of Mecca lived a tribe of warriors called Hawazin, who had not become Muslim. They made an agreement with another tribe from Ta’if, called Thaqif to fight the Muslims and destroy them before they could spread their religion throughout Arabia. The Thaqif, who were known for their courage, soon won the support of other tribes living around the Ta’if area, especially when such tribes were told: “Look what has happened! If Quraysh, the largest tribe of all, have fallen to Muhammad, it is only a matter of time before the same will happen to the rest of us. We should strike now before the Muslims are established in Mecca and have the support of Quraysh.” The Chief of one of these tribes, a fearless warrior called Malik Ibn Awf, was chosen as the leader. He put forward a plan: ‘You should all go out to battle accompanied by your families, your tents, your sheep and goats, for with all your belongings at stake, none of you will dare give up the fight.’

Everyone agreed with Malik except an old, blind man called Dorayd. He had been a great warrior in his day and because of his experience and valuable advice still accompanied the men into battle. ‘I don’t like Malik’s plan’, he insisted. ‘If a man is so cowardly as to leave a battle, then he will leave his family as well. The women and children will be a great worry to us and if we are defeated all our wealth will fall into enemy hands.’ But Malik ignored this advice and stuck to his original plan. When the Prophet ﷺ heard what the enemy tribes were planning, he found himself forced to fight and ordered his army towards Ta‟if. He had twelve thousand men and the enemy only four thousand. The Muslims were proud of their strength and as they looked around at their number, said to themselves, ‘We will never be defeated!’ On hearing this the Prophet ﷺ knew that the Muslims had become too proud and because of this would not succeed.

He warned them, ‘Look to Allah and not to your own strength.‟ The time for battle came. The Muslim army advanced along the Hunayn path, a narrow way in the rugged mountains, towards the valley where the Hawazin and the other tribes were waiting. It was very early morning and not yet light. The Muslims were unaware that, under cover of darkness, the Hawazin warriors had already climbed up the mountain and were waiting for them. As soon as all the Muslims were trapped in the narrow passage-way below, the Hawazin ambushed them. First they threw rocks down upon them and then attacked with arrows and swords.

In surprise and fear, the Muslims started to retreat. The Prophet ﷺ was bitterly disappointed to see them fleeing in terror but he stayed firmly in his place with Abu Bakr, ‘Ali, his uncle al-‘Abbas, and a few companions at his side. Al-‘Abbas then called to the Muslims to return and not to abandon the Prophet ﷺ. Ashamed at what they had done, and seeing the Prophet (pbuh) facing the enemy almost alone, the Muslims quickly returned to fight. Then Allah sent His angels-the hosts ye cannot see-to their aid. A fierce battle followed. The Muslim warriors advanced, attacking furiously, driving the Hawazin back from the path

into the valley, where the fighting went on long and hard. At the end of the day the Muslims won but not before having learned a hard lesson about the danger of pride.

Just as the old man had predicted, the defeated enemy fled, leaving their families and possessions to be captured. Later all the leaders of the tribes except one came to ask for them back and to declare their acceptance of Islam. The Prophet ﷺ forgave them and returned their families to them, but not their belongings. The one exception was the leader of Hawazin. He fled to Ta’if, where he sought protection in the castle, but the Muslims pursued him and surrounded the city, which they besieged for about three weeks.

They tried to break into the castle but after losing many men in the attempt the Prophet (pbuh) ordered a withdrawal. The story did not end there, however, for shortly afterwards Hawazin and most of the other tribes came to Mecca and declared themselves Muslim, including Malik Ibn Awf, who had led them in battle and whom the Prophet ﷺ now made their leader.

After the battle of the Hunayn Valley, the Prophet ﷺ distributed what goods had been taken between the people of Quraysh and the other Bedouin tribes. The Ansar from Medinah, who had been his only support during the long hard years before the conquest of Mecca, received nothing. They felt angry about this and went to the Prophet ﷺ to complain. He said to them, what is this I hear of you? Do you think badly of me? Did I not come to you when you did not know the truth and Allah guided you; when you were poor and Allah made you rich; when you were enemies and Allah softened your hearts? Are you covetous for the things of this world that I must use to gain people’s trust so that I can then

lead them to Islam? Surely for you Islam is enough? “Are you not satisfied that while some men take away flocks and herds you take Allah’s Messenger back with you to Medinah?” On hearing this, all the men felt very contrite and began to weep then with great humility and reverence their spokesman said: ‘We are indeed well pleased to have Allah’s Messenger as our gift in this life.‟ Perhaps we could ask ourselves the same question. Are we not blessed to have the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ and the Book, guiding us in what really matters for ever and ever? Is this not so much more important than thinking about the momentary pleasures of the day?”

Shortly after this the Ansar left for Medinah accompanied by the Prophet ﷺ. He could have stayed among his own people and lived out his days in Mecca, but he returned as he had promised, to live among the people of Medinah, which was a great blessing for them.

بِسۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
لَـقَدۡ نَصَرَكُمُ اللّٰهُ فِىۡ مَوَاطِنَ كَثِيۡرَةٍ‌ ۙ وَّيَوۡمَ حُنَيۡنٍ‌ ۙ اِذۡ اَعۡجَبَـتۡكُمۡ كَثۡرَتُكُمۡ فَلَمۡ تُغۡنِ عَنۡكُمۡ شَيۡـًٔـا وَّضَاقَتۡ عَلَيۡكُمُ الۡاَرۡضُ بِمَا رَحُبَتۡ ثُمَّ وَلَّـيۡتُمۡ مُّدۡبِرِيۡنَ‌ۚ‏ ﴿۲۵﴾  ثُمَّ اَنۡزَلَ اللّٰهُ سَكِيۡنَـتَهٗ عَلٰى رَسُوۡلِهٖ وَعَلَى الۡمُؤۡمِنِيۡنَ وَاَنۡزَلَ جُنُوۡدًا لَّمۡ تَرَوۡهَا‌ ۚ وَعَذَّبَ الَّذِيۡنَ كَفَرُوۡا‌ ؕ وَذٰ لِكَ جَزَآءُ الۡـكٰفِرِيۡنَ‏ ﴿۲۶﴾  ثُمَّ يَتُوۡبُ اللّٰهُ مِنۡۢ بَعۡدِ ذٰ لِكَ عَلٰى مَنۡ يَّشَآءُ ‌ؕ وَاللّٰهُ غَفُوۡرٌ رَّحِيۡمٌ‏ ﴿۲۷﴾ 

“Allah gave you victory on many fields and on the day of Hunayn, when you exulted in your great numbers it was of no help to you, and the earth, vast as it is, was straitened for you; then you turned back in flight; Then Allah sent His peace of reassurance down upon is Messenger and upon the believers, and sent down hosts you could not see, and punished those who did not believe. Such is the reward of disbelievers. Then afterwards Allah will relent toward whom He will; for Allah is Forgiving, Merciful”. (Qur’an 9.25-27)

Tabuk-The Test of Faith

 News of the growing power of the Muslims, as more and more of Arabia followed the Prophet ﷺ, eventually reached Heraclius, Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire. The Romans saw the uniting of the Arabs in Islam as a possible threat to their Empire and the Emperor’s advisors and generals, therefore, decided that the best thing to do would be to attack the Muslims from the north and east at the same time and destroy Islam once and for all.

Two years had passed since Heraclius had told them of the Prophet’s letter asking them to submit to Islam, but just as then, they were in no mood now to listen to such ideas. When the Prophet (pbuh) heard of the Romans’ plans, he decided that it would be better to meet the Roman army in Tabuk, some 500 kilometers form Medinah on the route to Syria, than to await an attack on Medinah. One reason for this decision was that the Prophet ﷺ felt that if the Muslims were defeated at Medinah, the city as well as the army would be taken, which would mean the end of Islam. This was a very hard decision for him to make because not only was Tabuk a very long way away, but it was also harvest time and a particularly hot year. Added to this was the fact that the enemy had an enormous army. Now at this time there were some people living in Medinah who were not true believers. They were called ‘hypocrites’ because they pretended to believe but hid what was truly in their hearts. When the Prophet ﷺ everyone to war, these hypocrites tried to create fear and doubt among the Muslims, saying ‘How can we hope to defeat the Romans whose great empire stretches over vast areas of the world? And even if we could, we will not get the chance because the long journey and the heat will defeat us first. In any case, our crops and fruits are ready to be harvested; how can we leave them? We will be ruined if we do!’

All that the hypocrites said severely tested the Muslims. Who would continue to fight for his religion against such odds? Who would have the courage to give his wealth to help equip an army? This test of faith would indeed show who the true Muslims were. On this question, Allah revealed the following verse

بِسۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
يٰۤـاَيُّهَا الَّذِيۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا مَا لَـكُمۡ اِذَا قِيۡلَ لَـكُمُ انْفِرُوۡا فِىۡ سَبِيۡلِ اللّٰهِ اثَّاقَلۡـتُمۡ اِلَى الۡاَرۡضِ‌ ؕ اَرَضِيۡتُمۡ بِالۡحَيٰوةِ الدُّنۡيَا مِنَ الۡاٰخِرَةِ‌ ۚ فَمَا مَتَاعُ الۡحَيٰوةِ الدُّنۡيَا فِى الۡاٰخِرَةِ اِلَّا قَلِيۡلٌ‏ ﴿۳۸﴾

“O you who believe! What aileth you that when it is said unto you: Go forth in the way of Allah, you are bowed down to the ground with heaviness. Do you take pleasure in the life of the world rather than in the Hereafter? The comfort of the life of the world is but little in the Hereafter”. (Quran 9.38)

To form and equip an army the Prophet needed a great deal of money and despite all that the hypocrites had said, many Muslims, especially the Prophet‟s close friends, were willing to help. ‘Uthman Ibn ‘Affan, for instance, generously provided horses and arms for ten thousand soldiers and Abu Bakr gave all that he had in the world. „Umar, too, gave a great deal, and in this way the Prophet ﷺ was able to equip an army of forty thousand soldiers.

Finally everything was ready but just as they were about to leave, seven more men came to the Prophet (pbuh) to ask if they could go with him. Unfortunately, he had to refuse because there were no animals for them to ride. The seven men were so upset that they wept as they left. With nothing more to be done, the army moved off, but just then several spare camels were found. On learning of this, the Prophet ﷺ sent for the seven men, who were overjoyed to find that they could join him in his fight.

By now the Romans had heard that the Muslims were coming out to meet them. They felt even more sure of victory when they heard this because they believed that it would be quite impossible for an army to cross a waterless desert in the scorching summer sun. Even if by some miracle the Muslims succeeded, they would be so exhausted that it would be easy to defeat them.

As it happed the heat was so intense and the journey so difficult that several Muslims did turn back. The Prophet ﷺ and most of the others, however, continued until they finally ran out of water. The expedition now seemed hopeless as the men grew thirstier and thirstier. The Prophet ﷺ prayed to Allah for help and, as he finished his prayer, the first drops of rain came splashing down. The rain continued to fall until all the Muslims had drunk their fill. That night they slept soundly for the first time in days, refreshed by the water and confident that Bilal would wake them as usual for the dawn prayer. But Bilal slept so deeply that he did not wake up. It was the first time that the Muslims

had missed a prayer and they were very upset. The Prophet ﷺ, however, was not angry with Bilal and told the Muslims that they need not be upset because they had not intentionally missed the prayer. The Prophet ﷺ and his army continued their trek across the desert and finally arrived at the oasis of Tabuk. When they got there, however, they were surprised to find that the Roman army had retreated in fear on hearing of the miraculous crossing of the desert by the Muslims. The Prophet ﷺ waited at the oasis for a while but when it became apparent that the Romans were not going to fight, he gave the order to return home. The enemy was not pursued because the Prophet ﷺ only fought when attacked. The long march to Tabuk had been yet another test of faith for the Muslims. Even so, there were still some among those who made that heroic journey who were hypocrites, pretending to be sincere while being enemies of Islam in their hearts. No one could have suspected that anyone who had made that journey across the desert with the Prophet (pbuh) would be an enemy of his. Realizing this, several hypocrites plotted to kill the Prophet (pbuh) by

pushing him off the top of a high, rocky passage that ran between the mountains of „Aqabah. Before the army reached this rocky passage, however, Allah warned the Prophet ﷺ about this wicked plan. The Prophet ﷺ, therefore, ordered the entire army to travel through the valley while he and his two guards went by way of the cliff. As the plotters approached, he shouted to them so that they could see that he knew of their plan, whereupon they quickly ran back to the army and tried to hide among the rest of the soldiers.

Later, the Prophet ﷺ gathered his followers around him and told them what had happened. He picked out the men who had plotted against him and even told them the exact words they had spoken to each other. Some of the Prophet’s companions said that these men should be killed, but the Prophet ﷺ forgave them. As soon as he arrived back in Medinah, the Prophet (pbuh) went to the mosque and prayed. Many of the hypocrites and the lukewarm who had not gone with him to Tabuk came to give their reasons for not having done so. Three men of spiritual value who had not joined the army were subjected by the Prophet ﷺ to the discipline of waiting for Allah’s forgiveness. For fifty days no one spoke to them. Finally, Allah revealed a verse to the Prophet ﷺ which

declared that these three men were forgiven:

بِسۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
لَـقَدْ تَّابَ اللّٰهُ عَلَى النَّبِىِّ وَالۡمُهٰجِرِيۡنَ وَالۡاَنۡصَارِ الَّذِيۡنَ اتَّبَعُوۡهُ فِىۡ سَاعَةِ الۡعُسۡرَةِ مِنۡۢ بَعۡدِ مَا كَادَ يَزِيۡغُ قُلُوۡبُ فَرِيۡقٍ مِّنۡهُمۡ ثُمَّ تَابَ عَلَيۡهِمۡ‌ؕ اِنَّهٗ بِهِمۡ رَءُوۡفٌ رَّحِيۡمٌۙ ‏ ﴿۱۱۷﴾  وَّعَلَى الثَّلٰثَةِ الَّذِيۡنَ خُلِّفُوۡا ؕ حَتّٰۤى اِذَا ضَاقَتۡ عَلَيۡهِمُ الۡاَرۡضُ بِمَا رَحُبَتۡ وَضَاقَتۡ عَلَيۡهِمۡ اَنۡفُسُهُمۡ وَظَنُّوۡۤا اَنۡ لَّا مَلۡجَاَ مِنَ اللّٰهِ اِلَّاۤ اِلَيۡهِ ؕ ثُمَّ تَابَ عَلَيۡهِمۡ لِيَتُوۡبُوۡا ‌ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰهَ هُوَ التَّوَّابُ الرَّحِيۡمُ‏ ﴿۱۱۸﴾  يٰۤـاَيُّهَا الَّذِيۡنَ اٰمَنُوا اتَّقُوا اللّٰهَ وَكُوۡنُوۡا مَعَ الصّٰدِقِيۡنَ‏ ﴿۱۱۹﴾

“Allah hath turned in mercy to the Prophet, and to the Muhajirin and the Ansar who followed him in the hour of hardship. After the hearts of a party of them had almost swerved aside, then He turned unto them in mercy. Lo! He is full of Pity, Merciful. And to the three also (did He turn in mercy) who were left behind, when the earth, vast as it is, was straitened for them, and their own souls were straitened for them till they understood that there is no refuge from Allah save toward Him. Then He turned unto them in mercy that they (too) might turn (repentant unto Him). Lo! Allah! He is the Relenting, the Merciful. O you who believe! Be careful of your duty to Allah, and be with tile truthful”. (Qur’an 9.117-119)

The Farewell Pilgrimage

 The Prophet ﷺ had become the most powerful leader in the whole of Arabia. After the idols in the Ka’bah had been smashed and Quraysh had become Muslim, most of the other tribes of Arabia came to declare their Islam. The year in which they came was later to be called the Year of Deputations. As each tribe joined Islam, the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ sent his men to teach them about their new religion. Many people also came to Medinah to question the Prophet ﷺ himself. One tribe sent a man called Dimam, who was large and strong. On arriving in Medinah, he went straight to the mosque, where the Messenger of Allah ﷺ was sitting with some of his companions, and stood over the Prophet ﷺ. In a loud, rough voice he asked, ‘Which of you is the son of ‘Abd al- Muttalib?’ When the Prophet ﷺ answered him Dimam went on, ‘I am going to ask you a hard question, so do not misunderstand me. I ask you to swear by Allah, your Allah, the Allah of those before you and the Allah of those who will come after you, has He sent you to us as a messenger?’ ‘Yes, He has’, replied the Prophet (pbuh). ‘Has Allah instructed you to order us to serve Him; to pray these five prayers; to pay alms; to fast; to make the pilgrimage and to follow the other laws of Islam)?’ continued Dimam. When the Prophet ﷺ answered that Allah had indeed instructed him in this way, Dimam became a Muslim and, as he left, added, ‘Then I will do the things we are told to do and avoid the things we are forbidden-no more and no less.` As Dimam mounted his camel to leave, the Prophet ﷺ told the people around him, ‘If this man is sincere, he will go to Paradise.’ When Dimam reached his people they all thought he had gone mad but by nightfall, after he had finished speaking, there was not among them that had not accepted Islam. When the time came for the yearly pilgrimage, it was proclaimed that the prophet ﷺ would be going to Mecca. The Muslims flocked to Medinah from all over Arabia to join him on his journey to the Ka‟bah. As the tribes arrived they camped around the city until they finally numbered more than thirty thousand.

The Prophet ﷺ went out with his family and friends to pilgrimage, but before setting off, he led all the Muslims in prayer. After the prayers, the Prophet ﷺ got on his camel and headed towards Mecca followed by the pilgrims, all of whom, for the first time in centuries, worshipped Allah, the One God. The Prophet ﷺ and his companions were deeply moved by the sight of the huge number of Muslims accompanying them to Mecca, carrying no arms, and fearing no one. They could not help but remember their original flight from Mecca when they had been so few in number and were forced to leave in order to avoid the anger of Quraysh. Throughout the journey the Muslims repeated a prayer taught to them by the Prophet ﷺ which he in turn had received from the Archangel Gabriel. This prayer, the talbiyah, has been part of the Hajj ritual ever since. It is in answer to the call Abraham was commanded to make when he and Ishmael finished building the Ka‟bah.

Labaik Allahumma labaik, labaik la sharika laka labaik in alhamd wa al-ni’amatu laka wal-mulk, la sharika laka.

Here I am, O Allah, at Thy service. Here I am, Thou art without partner, here I am. All Praise and blessings are thine, and Dominion! Thou art without partner! After ten days the pilgrims marched at sunset through the same pass by which they had entered on the Day of Conquest of Mecca. When they reached the Ka‟bah, the Prophet ﷺ stood before it in prayer, then he and all the Muslims walked around it seven times saying their prayer aloud. Next, just as Abraham had done, they went towards the Mount of Mercy at ‘Arafah, which the Prophet ﷺ ascended on a camel. From the mountain he led the people in prayer and then spoke to them as they stood assembled on the vast plain below. What the Prophet ﷺ said is known as the „Farewell Sermon‟, because it was the last speech the Prophet ﷺ made before he died. He said, ‘surely you will meet your Lord and He will question you about your works.’ He asked the Muslims to take their guidance from the Qur’an and from his own example. This, he said, was the best way to live. He ordered them to cease living in the way they had before Islam.

Revenge, one of the oldest traditions in Arabia, was ended forever; usury was prohibited; property was to be respected. Things which previously were forbidden during the four sacred months of the year were now forbidden at all times. He then commanded, ‘Know that every Muslim is a Muslim’s brother’, which was a completely new idea to the tribes who had so often quarreled in the past. He also said, ‘Allah has given everyone his due-exactly what each one deserves. After each point the Prophet ﷺ asked, ‘Have I explained it well? Is it perfectly clear?’ Everyone answered, ‘Yes.’ For these were the people who would have to pass on the Prophet’s message and instructions to those who were unable to be present that day and to future generations. The Prophet ﷺ said, ‘I have left you two things. If you hold on to them you will be saved. They are Allah’s Book and the words of your Prophet.’ He then asked, ‘Have I not conveyed the message?’ The multitude shouted out, ‘By Allah, yes!’ The Prophet ﷺ ended, ‘0 Allah! Bear witness to that.’

بِسۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
فَطَوَّعَتۡ لَهٗ نَفۡسُهٗ قَـتۡلَ اَخِيۡهِ فَقَتَلَهٗ فَاَصۡبَحَ مِنَ الۡخٰسِرِيۡنَ‏ ﴿۳۰﴾ 

“… This day those who disbelieve are in despair of (ever harming) your religion; so do not fear them, but fear Me! This day I have perfected your religion, for you, and I have completed My favor unto you, and have chosen for you as a religion AL-ISLAM”. (Quran 5.3)

 Many Muslims started to shed tears, knowing that if the Prophet ﷺ had completed his message, his life must be near its end. After spending the rest of the day of „Arafah in prayer and contemplation, the Muslims began to complete the pilgrimage by returning to Mecca with the talbiyah prayer still on their lips. The first night of the return journey was spent at Muzdalifah. Here they gathered pebbles, which they carried with them the next day to Mina. There they stood before a huge rock and stoned it in remembrance of Abraham’s meeting with the Devil in that very place. When Abraham received the order from Allah to sacrifice his son Ishmael as a test of his faith, the Devil had tried to convince him not to do it. He came to Abraham at Mina, as he was on his way to carry out Allah’s command, but Abraham took some stones and hurled them at the Devil to drive him away since the casting of stones at Mina on the Prophet’s ‘Farewell Pilgrimage’, this has become another ritual which Muslims perform on the annual pilgrimage to remind them that they, too, must continue to drive the Devil away when he tries to prevent them from being obedient to Allah. After throwing the stones, the pilgrims sacrificed sheep and camels and gave the meat to the poor. In this way the great faith of Abraham was remembered, for when he had been ready to sacrifice Ishmael, Allah had sent a sheep in his place. The Muslims then completed the pilgrimage by again circling the Ka‟bah seven times. They then cut their hair and nails and changed out of their white clothes to show they had returned to their daily lives. Before returning to Medinah, the Muslims spent three nights in the valley at Medinah where the final preparations were made for the journey home.

As for the Prophet ﷺ, he made one final visit before leaving Mecca. This was to the grave of his devoted wife, Khadijah, who had been the first person to believe in Allah’s Revelation through him. The Prophet ﷺ knew that this would be the last time he would see the grave, or Mecca, because during the pilgrimage he had received the chapter of the Qur’an called ‘Help’, form which he knew that his death was not far away.

بِسۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
اِذَا جَآءَ نَصۡرُ اللّٰهِ وَالۡفَتۡحُۙ‏ ﴿۱﴾  وَرَاَيۡتَ النَّاسَ يَدۡخُلُوۡنَ فِىۡ دِيۡنِ اللّٰهِ اَفۡوَاجًا ۙ‏ ﴿۲﴾  فَسَبِّحۡ بِحَمۡدِ رَبِّكَ وَاسۡتَغۡفِرۡهُ‌ ؔؕ اِنَّهٗ كَانَ تَوَّابًا‏ ﴿۳﴾ 

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

 “When Allah’s help and triumph comes And thou seest, mankind entering the religion of Allah in troops, Then hymn the praises of thy Lord, and seek forgiveness of Him. Lo! He is ever ready to show mercy”. (Quran 110.1-3)

The Prophet’s Death

 One Night, shortly after his return to Medinah, the Prophet ﷺ woke up at midnight and asked his servant‟ Abd Allah to saddle his mule. They then left the house and went to the Baqi al-Gharqad, the burial ground of the Muslims. There the Prophet (pbuh) stood in the front of the graves and, as though he could see the Muslims buried in them, spoke to them and prayed over them. Later, ‟Abd Allah reported, ‟The Prophet ﷺ told me that he was ordered to pray for the dead and that I was to go with him.”

After the Prophet ﷺ had prayed he turned to „Abd Allah and said, “I can choose between all the riches of this world, a long life and then Paradise, or meeting my Lord and entering Paradise now.” ‘Abd Allah begged him to choose a long, rich life, followed by Paradise, but the Prophet ﷺ told him that he had already chosen to meet his Lord now rather than remain in the world. The following morning the Prophet ﷺ awoke with a terrible headache, but despite this he had led the prayers at the mosque. From what he said afterwards to the people assembled there, they understood that his death was near.

The Prophet ﷺ praised his best friend, Abu Bakr, who had begun to weep, and told everyone that he knew they would all meet again at a pool in Paradise. He added, however that although he was sure they would always worship Allah alone, he feared that the pleasures of the world would attract them, and they would begin to compete with one another for material possessions, forgetting spiritual things. Soon after the Prophet ﷺ requested that he be moved to the room of A‟isha, one of his wives. As the days passed his fever grew worse, until one day he was so ill that he could not even get to the mosque, which was next to where A‟isha lived. The Prophet ﷺ told A‟isha to tell the Muslims to let Abu Bakr, her father, lead the prayer, which made them very sad for this was the first time anyone had taken the Prophet’s place.

Later, on the 12th day of Rabi al-Awal, in the 11th year of Islam (June 8 th 632 A.D.), the Prophet ﷺ heard the voices of the people in prayer. With great effort he got up and looked from his door at all the Muslims who were assembled in rows behind Abu bakr; he smiled with great satisfaction. Abu Bakr saw him and stepped back to give the Prophet ﷺ his place. The Muslims were happy, thinking he was going to pray with them as before, but the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ, who looked radiantly beautiful that day signaled to them to continue on their own. He prayed in a sitting position at the right of Abu Bakr, after which he went back inside and lay his head on ‘A’ishah’s lap. He was in such pain that his daughter Fatimah cried out in pity. Then the Prophet ﷺ said, ‘There is no pain for your father after this day; truly, death has appeared to me. We must all suffer it till the Day of Judgement.’ As he lay there, A’ishah remembered that he had once said, Allah never takes a Prophet to Himself without giving him the choice.’ Then she heard the Prophet ﷺ speak. His last words were, ‘Nay, rather the Exalted Communion of Paradise.’

A‟ishah then said to herself, ‘So, by Allah, he is not choosing us!’ When the people in the mosque heard that the Prophet ﷺ was dead, they were filled with grief. Umar could not, and would not, believe it, and exclaimed that it was not true. Abu Bakr then went out and spoke gently to the people, saying ‘All praise belongs to Allah! “O people, whoever worshipped Muhammad, Muhammad is dead. But for him who worships Allah, Allah is living and never dies.” He then recited this verse from the Qur’an which had been revealed after the battle of Uhud:

بِسۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
وَمَا مُحَمَّدٌ اِلَّا رَسُوۡلٌ  ۚ قَدۡ خَلَتۡ مِنۡ قَبۡلِهِ الرُّسُلُ‌ؕ اَفَا۟ٮِٕنْ مَّاتَ اَوۡ قُتِلَ انْقَلَبۡتُمۡ عَلٰٓى اَعۡقَابِكُمۡ‌ؕ وَمَنۡ يَّنۡقَلِبۡ عَلٰى عَقِبَيۡهِ فَلَنۡ يَّضُرَّ اللّٰهَ شَيۡـــًٔا‌ ؕ وَسَيَجۡزِى اللّٰهُ الشّٰكِرِيۡنَ‏ ﴿۱۴۴﴾  وَمَا كَانَ لِنَفۡسٍ اَنۡ تَمُوۡتَ اِلَّا بِاِذۡنِ اللّٰهِ كِتٰبًا مُّؤَجَّلًا ؕ وَ مَنۡ يُّرِدۡ ثَوَابَ الدُّنۡيَا نُؤۡتِهٖ مِنۡهَا ‌ۚ وَمَنۡ يُّرِدۡ ثَوَابَ الۡاٰخِرَةِ نُؤۡتِهٖ مِنۡهَا ‌ؕ وَسَنَجۡزِى الشّٰكِرِيۡنَ‏ ﴿۱۴۵﴾

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

 “Muhammad is but a messenger, messengers (the like of whom) have passed away before him. Will it be that, when he dies or is slain, you will turn back on your heels? He who turns back does no hurt to Allah, and Allah will reward the thankful. No soul can ever die except by Allah’s permission and at a term appointed. Who so desires the reward of the world, We bestow on him thereof; and whosoever desires the reward of the Hereafter, We bestow on him thereof We shall reward the thankful”. (Quran 3.144-145)

After this the people pledged their loyalty to Abu Bakr, whom the Prophet ﷺ had chosen to lead the prayer. Abu Bakr accepted and concluded what he had to say with these words: ‘Obey me so long as I obey Allah and His Messenger. But if I disobey Allah and His Messenger, you owe me no obedience. Arise for your prayer, Allah have mercy upon you!’ The people rose and asked him; ‘Where will the Prophet ﷺ be buried?’ Abu Bakr remembered that the Prophet ﷺ had said, ‘No Prophet dies who is not buried on the spot where he died.’

And so the Prophet ﷺ was buried in a grave dug in the floor of A’ishah’s room, in the house next to the mosque. The spot became known as the Haram al-Nabawi and Muslims from all over the world go there to pray and to give their blessings and greetings of peace the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ.

What Famous People Have Said About Muhammad ﷺ

  1. Dr Michael H. Hart “The 100” is perhaps one of the greatest books on the analysis of history every written. The autho of the book Dr.Michael H. Hart is a man of amzing erudition in diverse fields and domains of study and research. He holds an A.B from Cornell University, an L.L.B. from New York Law School, an MS is Physics from Adelphi University and a Ph.D. in astronomy from Princeton University. He has worked at the NASA Coddard Space Flight Centre in Greenbelt, Maryland: the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colorad and Hales Obervatories in Pasadena, California. He is currently a senior staff scienctist with Systems and Applies Science Corporation in Riverdale, Maryland and a member of American Astronomical Society and its Division of Planetary Science. Hart is coeditor of Extraterrestrials: Where Are They? And has written many technical articles for many major publications.

My choice of Muhammad to lead the list of the world’s most influential persons may surprise some readers and may be questioned by others, but he was the only man in history who was supremely successful on both the secular and religious level.

…It is probable that the relative influence of Muhammad on Islam has been larger than the combined influence of Jesus Christ and St. Paul on Christianity.

..It is this unparalleled combination of secular and religious influence which I feel entitles Muhammad to be considered the most influential single figure in human history. (Michael H. Hart, THE 100: A RANKING OF THE MOST INFLUENTIAL PERSONS IN HISTORY, New York: Hart Publishing Company, Inc., 1978, p. 33.).

  1. His complete biography has been authenticated and circulated amongst

 scholars around the world starting while he was still alive and continuing up until today. One of the first examples we quote from is from the Encyclopedia Britannica, as it confirms:

(Regarding Muhammad) “. . . a mass of detail in the early sources shows that he was an honest and upright man who had gained the respect and loyalty of others who were likewise honest and upright men.”  (Vol. 12).

  1. While we are reviewing statements from famous non-Muslims about Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, consider this:

“Philosopher, orator, apostle, legislator, warrior, conqueror of ideas, restorer of rational dogmas, of a cult without images; the founder of twenty terrestrial empires and of one spiritual empire, that is Muhammad. As regards all standards by which human greatness may be measured, we may well ask, is there any man greater than he?”

(Lamartine, HISTOIRE DE LA TURQUIE, Paris, 1854, Vol. II, pp. 276-277.).

  1. George Bernard Shaw, a famous writer and non-Muslim says:

“He must be called the Savior of Humanity. I believe that if a man like him were to assume the dictatorship of the modern world, he would succeed in solving its problems in a way that would bring it much needed peace and happiness.”

(The Genuine Islam, Singapore, Vol. 1, No. 8, 1936).

  1. S. Ramakrishna Rao, an Indian (Hindu) professor of Philosophy, in his booklet “Muhammad the Prophet of Islam” calls him the “perfect model for human life.” Professor Ramakrishna Rao explains his point by saying:

“The personality of Muhammad, it is most difficult to get into the whole truth of it. Only a glimpse of it I can catch. What a dramatic succession of picturesque scenes. There is Muhammad the Prophet. There is Muhammad the Warrior; Muhammad the Businessman; Muhammad the Statesman; Muhammad the Orator; Muhammad the Reformer; Muhammad the Refuge of Orphans; Muhammad the Protector of Slaves; Muhammad the Emancipator of Women; Muhammad the Judge; Muhammad the Saint. All in all these magnificent roles, in all these departments of human activities, he is alike a hero.”

  1. What should we think about our prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, when someone with the worldly status such as Mahatma Gandhi, speaking on the character of Muhammad, peace be upon him, says in ‘YOUNG INDIA’:

“I wanted to know the best of one who holds today undisputed sway over the hearts of millions of mankind… I became more than convinced that it was not the sword that won a place for Islam in those days in the scheme of life. It was the rigid simplicity, the utter self-effacement of the Prophet, the scrupulous regard for his pledges, his intense devotion to his friends and followers, his intrepidity, his fearlessness, his absolute trust in God and in his own mission. These and not the sword carried everything before them and surmounted every obstacle. When I closed the 2nd volume (of the Prophet’s biography), I was sorry there was not more for me to read of the great life.”

  1. English author Thomas Carlyle in his ‘Heroes and Hero Worship’, was simply amazed:

“How one man single handedly, could weld warring tribes and wandering Bedouins into a most powerful and civilized nation in less than two decades.”

  1. And Diwan Chand Sharma wrote in “The Prophets of the East”:

“Muhammad was the soul of kindness, and his influence was felt and never forgotten by those around him”

(D.C. Sharma, The Prophets of the East, Calcutta, 1935, pp. 12)

Muhammad, peace be upon him, was nothing more or less than a human being, but he was a man with a noble mission, which was to unite humanity on the worship of ONE and ONLY ONE GOD and to teach them the way to honest and upright living based on the commands of God. He always described himself as, ‘A Servant and Messenger of God’ and so indeed every action of his proclaimed to be.

  1. Speaking on the aspect of equality before God in Islam, the famous poetess of India, Sarojini Naidu says:

“It was the first religion that preached and practiced democracy; for, in the mosque, when the call for prayer is sounded and worshippers are gathered together, the democracy of Islam is embodied five times a day when the peasant and king kneel side by side and proclaim: ‘God Alone is Great’… I have been struck over and over again by this indivisible unity of Islam that makes man instinctively a brother.”

(S. Naidu, Ideals of Islam, vide Speeches & Writings, Madras, 1918, p. 169)

  1. In the words of Professor Hurgronje:

“The league of nations founded by the prophet of Islam put the principle of international unity and human brotherhood on such universal foundations as to show candle to other nations.” He continues, “the fact is that no nation of the world can show a parallel to what Islam has done towards the realization of the idea of the League of Nations.”

  1. Wolfgang Goethe, perhaps the greatest European poet ever, wrote about Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him. He said:

“He is a prophet and not a poet and therefore his Koran is to be seen as Divine Law and not as a book of a human being, made for education or entertainment.”

(Noten und Abhandlungen zum Weststlichen Dvan, WA I, 7, 32)

  1. In his book, Reverend Bosworth Smith stated that; “He was a Ceaser and a Pope in one; but he was a Pope without Pope’s pretensions, Ceaser without legions of Ceasers: without a standing army, without a bodyguard, without a palace, without a fixed revenue. If ever any man had the right to say that he ruled by the right devine, it was Muhammad, for he had all the power without its instrument and without its supports”

(Mohammad and Mohammadism, London 1874, p 92).

  1. Napoleon Bonaparte

I hope the time is not far off when I shall be able to unite all the wise and educated men of all the countries and establish a uniform regime based on the principles of Quran which alone are true and which alone can lead men to happiness.

  1. Montgomery Watt

His readiness to undergo persecution for his beliefs, the high moral character of the men who believed in him and looked up to him as a leader, and the greatness of his ultimate achievement – all argue his fundamental integrity. To suppose Muhammad an impostor raises more problems that it solves. Moreover, none of the great figures of history is so poorly appreciated in the West as Muhammad

Thus, not merely must we credit Muhammad with essential honesty and integrity of purpose, if we are to understand him at all; if we are to correct the errors we have inherited from the past, we must not forget the conclusive proof is a much stricter requirement than a show of plausibility, and in a matter such as this only to be attained with difficulty.

  1. Sir George Bernard Shaw

I have always held the religion of Muhammad in high estimation because of its wonderful vitality. It is the only religion which appears to me to possess that assimilating capacity to the changing phase of existence which can make itself appeal to every age. I have studied him – the wonderful man and in my opinion far from being an anti-Christ, he must be called the Saviour of Humanity.

I believe that if a man like him were to assume the dictatorship of the modern world he would succeed in solving its problems in a way that would bring it the much needed peace and happiness: I have prophesied about the faith of Muhammad that it would be acceptable to the Europe of tomorrow as it is beginning to be acceptable to the Europe of today.

  1. G. Wells

The Islamic teachings have left great traditions for equitable and gentle dealings and behaviour, and inspire people with nobility and tolerance. These are human teachings of the highest order and at the same time practicable. These teachings brought into existence a society in which hard-heartedness and collective oppression and injustice were the least as compared with all other societies preceding it… Islam is replete with gentleness, courtesy, and fraternity.

  1. Thomas Carlyle

The lies (Western slander) which well-meaning zeal has heaped round this man (Muhammad) are disgraceful to ourselves only.

A silent great soul, one of that who cannot but be earnest. He was to kindle the world, the world’s Maker had ordered so.

  1. De Lacy O’Leary

History makes it clear, however, that the legend of fanatical Muslims sweeping through the world and forcing Islam at the point of sword upon conquered races is one of the most fantastically absurd myths that historians have ever repeated.

  1. Alphonse de LaMartaine

If greatness of purpose, smallness of means, and astonishing results are the three criteria of a human genius, who could dare compare any great man in history with Muhammad? The most famous men created arms, laws, and empires only. They founded, if anything at all, no more than material powers which often crumbled away before their eyes. This man moved not only armies, legislations, empires, peoples, dynasties, but millions of men in one-third of the then inhabited world; and more than that, he moved the altars, the gods, the religions, the ideas, the beliefs and the souls.

Divine Selection to Muhammad

From words of the above people, the Sera of The Prophet Mohamme ﷺ, his companions, his family and friends and all his followers are all testimont to his impecable character, his sincerity, his honestry and integrety, his extreme love for Allah and devoutness to the message, we can sea why Allah has chosen Mohammed ﷺ as the final messager.

His honestry and and trust worthiness earned him the name Al-Amin, the Prophet of Truth. His truthfullness and trustworthiness was even confirmed by his sworn enemies.

The fact of the matter is that Allah has chosen the best, most loved, and most sincere person to Him to convey His Message. And The Almighty knows best what’s in the hearts. Allah says in the Qur’an,

“Allah chooses for Himself whom He pleases, and guides to Himself those who turn (to Him) [42:13].”

Allah also says,

“Allah best knows where He places His message [6:124].”

After all, if Allah knew of any person more sincere, loving, devoted and fearful of Him than Muhammad, Allah would’ve surely have chosen him. But, Muhammad ﷺ deserved the divine selection due to his extreme love for his Lord and his attachment and sincerity to Allah.

Allah chooses good hearts which truly and sincerely loves Him. He (SWT) chooses the purified and enlightened selves and He chooses the good, noble manners and righteous souls that voluntarily obey Him, and which are preoccupied in His worship over others. So Allah honors them by His divine selection. In brief, Allah chooses those who choose Allah and He loves those who love Him, and He guides those who seek His guidance.

It was a SECRET between two! The fact of the matter is that there was a special secret between Muhammad ﷺ and Allah! A secret which no one knows except both of them before the Divine Revelation! A very special and unique relationship! Muhammad ﷺ was very careful to keep it a hidden secret throughout the years until he turned forty years old and received the divine revelation.

This secret and this unique relationship is what made ﷺ choose him to convey His Final Message. It was not a temporary or limited relationship; rather it started a long while ago when Muhammad ﷺ was still a very young lad opening his eyes to life. This pure, sincere, and unique divine relationship between Muhammad ﷺ and His Lord is what poured rivers of light upon him and veneration from ﷺ). It is what made the clouds shadow him wherever he went. It is what made the priests from the Jews and Christians recognize him when they saw him accompany his uncle (Abu Talib) and they warned him to protect Muhammad ﷺ from the conspiracies and envy of his enemies.

It is what made love and respect surround him such that no one saw him without falling in love with him and respecting him. This special and unique relationship which was kept a secret and will continue to be a secret which no one knows or understands, or truly appreciate except very few people!

And if history narrates to us more about the life of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ before the revelation of the Message, we will find thousands of proofs that would indicate the presence of this special and unique relationship between Muhammad ﷺ and his Lord. Here, we see Muhammad ﷺ in his commercial travels trips to the north and south as he enjoys meeting the priests and worshippers and those who dedicate their lives for God (like himself). He is happy to meet them out of his love for his Creator.

These honorable meetings in the love and worship of Allah which Muhammad ﷺ was later accused unjustly that he came to know the stories of past religions from these priest and passed these stories as revelotion while these meetings were short, transitory, and were for those who tread the path of Allah and yearn for His worship.

How is it then possible that a man to whom these accusations are leveled we see Muhammad ﷺ (after the Revelation of the Message) prolonging his prayer and supplication to his Lord at night, such that his feet swell and he sleeps very little? Shall we then wonder if we see him turning his face on the ground from long prostration out of love and humility to Allah, such that his wife Ayesha thought that he died due to his long prostration? Shall we then wonder when we see him crying out of fear of Allah and laughing and speaking very little? Shall we then wonder when we listen to him saying that the comfort of his eyes is in prayer?

Shall we then wonder if his last words when he departed this life was “to the highest companion” while his eyes are fixed to the heavens and his heart gives its last heartbeat, a heart that beats in the love of his Creator which it never beat except by Him and for Him. He didn’t know or love anyone other than Allah, such that life became worthless to Him. Or let us say that the whole life itself and those in it was nothing to Him but a heartbeat of love and a tune of adoration to Allah!

So who from us is more loving to Allah than Muhammad ﷺ? Who from all the hearts of humanity loved Allah and was more devoted to Him as Muhammad ﷺ?

Muhammad’s divine selection to become the Seal of Prophets and Messengers and the best of His creation and the Master of His living beings did not come from nothing. The sincere love from Muhammad towards his Lord was present before the Divine Revelation and continued to exist and grow even more after the Revelation.

It was one connected chain and rope between him and his creator which will never be severed! It is a relationship between him and his Lord the Creator that has no limit. For that reason, Allah willed that the divine inspiration begin while Muhammad ﷺ was at the peak and climax of this worshipping state inside the cave within a mountain at midnight to cherish that moment for Muhammad ﷺ and to let the people understand that Allah did not choose him from nothing. Rather, Allah chose him because Muhammad ﷺ chose Allah (SWT) at a time when no one did! He sold himself to Allah (SWT) at a time when it was not heard of. This is ultimately what none Muslims fail to understand.

MIRACLES

Christians often say Muhammad ﷺ was not a prophet of God as he did not perform any mracles and according to the Bible a prophet of God is recognised by the miracles he performs.  Islam does not promote miracles as a bliefe as it is not an article of faith. God wants us to believe in his words and his message which is the central part of sending messengers to teach us. We find that God gave Jesus (pbuh) the power to perform miracles in His name people started worshiping Jesus (pbuh) and the focus was no longer on God and His word but on Jesus (pbuh).

When Muhammad ﷺ passed away people could not believe that he died and refused to believe it. Abu Bakr then went out and spoke gently to the people, saying ‘All praise belongs to Allah! “O people, whoever worshipped Muhammad, Muhammad is dead. But for him who worships Allah, Allah is living and never dies.” He then recited this verse from the Qur’an which had been revealed after

the battle of Uhud:

 

بِسۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ

وَمَا مُحَمَّدٌ اِلَّا رَسُوۡلٌ  ۚ قَدۡ خَلَتۡ مِنۡ قَبۡلِهِ الرُّسُلُ‌ؕ اَفَا۟ٮِٕنْ مَّاتَ اَوۡ قُتِلَ انْقَلَبۡتُمۡ عَلٰٓى اَعۡقَابِكُمۡ‌ؕ وَمَنۡ يَّنۡقَلِبۡ عَلٰى عَقِبَيۡهِ فَلَنۡ يَّضُرَّ اللّٰهَ شَيۡـــًٔا‌ ؕ وَسَيَجۡزِى اللّٰهُ الشّٰكِرِيۡنَ‏ ﴿۱۴۴﴾  وَمَا كَانَ لِنَفۡسٍ اَنۡ تَمُوۡتَ اِلَّا بِاِذۡنِ اللّٰهِ كِتٰبًا مُّؤَجَّلًا ؕ وَ مَنۡ يُّرِدۡ ثَوَابَ الدُّنۡيَا نُؤۡتِهٖ مِنۡهَا ‌ۚ وَمَنۡ يُّرِدۡ ثَوَابَ الۡاٰخِرَةِ نُؤۡتِهٖ مِنۡهَا ‌ؕ وَسَنَجۡزِى الشّٰكِرِيۡنَ‏ ﴿۱۴۵﴾ 

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

“Muhammad is but a messenger, messengers (the like of whom) have passed away before him. Will it be that, when he dies or is slain, you will turn back on your heels? He who turns back does no hurt to Allah, and Allah will reward the thankful. No soul can ever die except by Allah’s permission and at a term appointed. Who so desires the reward of the world, We bestow on him thereof; and whosoever desires the reward of the Hereafter, We bestow on him thereof We shall reward the thankful”. (Qur’an 3.144-145)

After this the people pledged their loyalty to Abu Bakr, whom the Prophet ﷺ had chosen to lead the Muslims after he died. Abu Bakr accepted and concluded what he had to say with these words: ‘Obey me so long as I obey Allah and His Messenger. But if I disobey Allah and His Messenger, you owe me no obedience. Arise for your prayer, Allah have mercy upon you!’ The people rose and asked him; ‘Where will the Prophet ﷺ be buried?’ Abu Bakr remembered that the Prophet ﷺ had said, ‘No Prophet dies who is not buried on the spot where he died.’

Nevertheless, this is not to say that Muhammad ﷺ did not perform any miracles, on the contrary, he may have performed more miracles than what Jesus (pbuh) performed but Muslims do not need miracles in order to believe in Allah as miracles comes at the will and power of Allah only.

The Splitting of the Moon

A group of people from Quraish came to Muhammad ﷺ telling him that if he was indeed a messenger and a prophet from God then he bring a miracle to prove that fact. Instead of writing all this down here is a video where you can see the verses and get the story:

The Weeping Tree

‘Abdullāh b. ‘Umar رضي الله عنهما reports that the Prophet ﷺ used to deliver his sermons while standing beside the trunk of a date-palm tree. Upon the request of an Anṣāri woman, the Prophet ﷺ permitted that a small pulpit of three steps be constructed for him so that he would be more visible and project his voice farther into the growing audience. When the Prophet ﷺ ascended the new pulpit on the following Friday, loud sounds of weeping emerged from this tree-trunk. The Prophet ﷺ descended and proceeded over to it, and began rubbing his hand over it just as someone does to quiet a child. Anas b. Mālik رضي الله عنه adds, “And the mosque shook from its whimpers.” Sahl b. Sa‘d رضي الله عنه adds, “Many people started weeping from hearing its crying and moaning.” Ibn ‘Abbās رضي الله عنهما adds, “He ﷺ went and hugged it until it quieted, then said [to us], ‘Had I not embraced it, it would have continued like this until the Day of Resurrection.’” Jabir رضي الله عنه adds, “It was weeping over the Revelation that it would hear [recited] close by.”

These were only five Companions who reported this incident first hand, though nearly twenty in total were present, according to the leading Hadith authorities. Ibn Ḥajar summarizes this investigation by saying, “The hadith(s) of the tree weeping and moon splitting have each been transmitted by an enormous number, one that offers sure knowledge for Hadith experts who examine their chains of transmission, not those untrained in that, and Allah knows best.”[1] Similarly, al-Munāwi reports this hadith on the tree whimpering through many authentic chains which collectively entail it being a mutawātir event, then states that it has been narrated from nearly twenty Companions.[2] Their corroboration led al-Bayhaqi (d. 1066) to say that tracing the narrations of this incident to verify whether it happened or not, after an entire generation conveyed it to an entire generation without any discrepancy in principle, is unnecessary.[3]

Imam ash-Shāfi‘i (d. 820) said, “God never granted any prophet what He granted Muhammad.” ‘Amr b. Sawād disagreed, saying, “Jesus was given the ability to revive the dead…” He replied, “Muhammad was granted the whimpering of the tree-trunk, till it could be heard, and this is greater than that.” Ibn Kathīr cites this exchange and then explains; “He said it was greater because a tree-trunk is not subject to becoming alive [as humans are], and yet it became sensitive and emotional when he left it for the pulpit. It whimpered and moaned like a pregnant camel does until Allah’s Messenger ﷺ stepped down and embraced it.”[4] This should never be understood as slighting the previous signs of God or His messengers, as that is tantamount to disbelief in Islam.

Increasing the Water Supply

Imam an-Nawawi (d. 1277) says, “These hadith(s) on water gushing from among his fingers and increasing for him, and the food supply increasing as well, are all clear miracles performed by Allah’s Messenger ﷺ on many occasions and in different conditions and have collectively reached mutawātir status.”[5] Hadith scholars have compiled volumes on just these incidents, of which are the following:

Ibn Mas‘ūd رضي الله عنه said, “We used to consider miracles as Allah’s Blessings, but you people consider them to be threatening. We were once with the Messenger of Allah ﷺ on a journey, and our water ran short. He said, “Bring me the remaining water.” The people presented him a vessel containing water, which he then placed his hands inside of and said, “Come get the blessed purification water, and all blessings are from Allah.” I saw the water flowing from between the fingers of Allah’s Messenger ﷺ. Indeed, we used to also hear the food glorifying Allah as it was being eaten [by him].”[6]

Jābir b. ‘Abdillāh رضي الله عنه narrated that the people became very thirsty on the Day of Ḥudaybiya. There was a small pot containing some water in front of the Prophet ﷺ, and he found the people rushing towards him as he finished performing his ritual ablution using it. He ﷺ asked them, “What has happened?” They said, “We neither have water for ablution nor drinking.” So he ﷺ placed his palm into that pot, and water began flowing upwards from between his fingers like springs. He said, “All those seeking ablution, come forward; the blessing is from Allah.” Jābir said, “We all drank and performed ablution [from that pot], and I did not care how much I drank because I knew it was blessed.” One narrator asked Jābir, “How many were you?” He said, “Even if we had been one hundred thousand, it would have been sufficient for us, but we were fifteen hundred.”[7] Anas b. Malik رضي الله عنه personally narrated several other nearly identical incidents[8] of water pouring forth from between the Prophet’s ﷺ blessed fingers.

These reports may indicate that water was emerging from the actual fingers of the Prophet ﷺ, or that it sprang through the gaps between them. The majority of Hadith interpreters—including al-Bughawi and as-Suyūṭi—chose the first view, and consequently deemed this feat particularly exceptional. Ibn ‘Abdil-Barr (d. 1071) explains, “What the Prophet ﷺ was granted in this inimitable miracle is clearer than the signs of the other prophets, and even the most notable of them, such as what Moses had been granted when he struck the stone with his staff, causing twelve springs to erupt from it. That is because some stones can be found with springs erupting from them, while water emerging from between the fingers of a human being has never been witnessed from anyone but our Prophet, salutations and peace be upon him.”[9] Of course, this does not disparage the profound sign of Prophet Moses, peace be upon him, just as stones erupting with 12 springs for the Israelites do not disparage God’s sign in erupting springs for mankind at the most unexpected places.

Increasing the Food Supply

Salama b. al-Akwa‘ رضي الله عنه narrates: We once set out on an expedition with Allah’s Messenger ﷺ and faced great hardship, and decided to slaughter some of our riding animals [for food]. The Messenger of Allah ﷺ ordered us to pool our food rations, so we spread a sheet and leather where everyone’s rations were collected. I stretched myself to assess how much that was, and it was [only] the area a small goat could sit on. We were fourteen hundred people; we ate to our satisfaction and then filled our bags with provisions. The Messenger of Allah ﷺ then said, “Is there any water for performing ablution?” A man came forward with a small container that held very little water, which the Prophet ﷺ emptied into a wider basin. From that amount all thoroughly performed their ablution. Eight individuals later came and said, “Is there any water left to perform ablution?” Allah’s Messenger ﷺ replied, “The ablution water has finished.”[10] As Imam an-Nawawi points out elsewhere, “When a Companion narrates something this incredible, and cites as evidence personally attending it himself along with the other Companions, who hear his narration and claim or hear about it, and do not denounce him, that further confirms it and necessitates [sure] knowledge about the truth of his words.”[11]

Jābir b. ‘Abdillāh رضي الله عنه reports that his father, ‘Abdullāh b. ‘Amr b. Ḥarām, died while leaving behind a sizable debt. He said, “So I sought the Prophet’s ﷺ help with his creditors so that they would decrease his debt. He ﷺ requested this [from them], but they refused, so the Prophet ﷺ said to me, ‘Go divide your dates according to their kinds; set the ‘Ajwa dates on one side and the ‘Idhq Ibn Zayd on another side, then notify me.’ I did so, then notified the Messenger of Allah ﷺ. He came, sat down, then said, ‘Measure for the people (creditors).’ I measured out their amounts until I had repaid them all that they were owed and my dates remained as if nothing had decreased from them.” When ‘Umar b. al-Khaṭṭāb رضي الله عنه was informed of this miraculous surplus, he said, “Once the Messenger of Allah ﷺ walked in [your garden], I knew it would be blessed.”[12]

‘Abdur-Rahmān b. Abi Bakr رضي الله عنهما reports: “We were 130 people with the Prophet ﷺ, and he said to us, ‘Does any one of you have food with them?’ One man had about a sâ‘[13] of food, and so that was mixed. Then a tall pagan man with disheveled hair came by driving some sheep. The Prophet said to him, ‘Selling or gifting?’ He said, ‘No, selling.’ He purchased a sheep from him and it was cooked, and the Prophet ﷺ ordered that the liver be roasted [as well]. By Allah, there was not a single person from the 130 except that the Prophet ﷺ cut for him a piece of its liver; those who were present were given, and those absent were stowed for. It was made into two dishes which they all ate from, and we had our fill, and [yet] the two dishes remained and we loaded them onto a camel.”[14]

Jābir b. ‘Abdillāh رضي الله عنه reports: We were digging on the Day of the Trench when a huge solid boulder hindered us. They came to the Prophet ﷺ and complained to him about this boulder, and he said, “I am coming.” He then stood, stones tied to his stomach, as we had not tasted food in three days, and took the sledgehammer and struck the boulder until it became a dust mound. I said, “O Messenger of Allah, would you permit me to [go to] my home?” I [went and] said to my wife, “I saw on the Prophet ﷺ something that one cannot bear (i.e., the stones he had fastened from hunger). Do you have anything?” She said, “I have some wheat and a small goat.” I slaughtered the small goat, ground the wheat, then placed the meat in the clay pot. Before I left, my wife said, “Do not humiliate me in front of the Prophet ﷺ and those with him.” I went to the Prophet ﷺ and whispered to him, “I have a little food, so you come, O Messenger of Allah, along with a man or two.” He said, “How much is it?” I informed him, so he said, “That is plenty and good!” Then, he ﷺ said, “O People of the Trench! [Stand, all of you], Jābir has prepared a banquet for you. Let us go.” The Muhājirīn and Anṣār stood, and the Prophet ﷺ said to me, “Tell her not to pull the pot, nor the bread from the oven, until I come.” When I entered upon my wife and informed her of the army behind me, she said, “What is with you?!” I said, “I did what you said!” She said, “Did he ask you?” I said, “Yes.” The dough was brought out to the Prophet ﷺ, and he spat in it and prayed for blessings, then reached for the pot and did the same. Then, he would tear the bread and place it inside the pot and serve ample bread and meat to each Companion. They were one thousand people and, by Allah, each of them ate until they stopped [of their own accord] and left, and our pot was still full and our bread still plenty. In the end, he ﷺ said to us, “Eat from this, or gift it, for the people [of Madinah] have been struck with hunger.”[15]

Anas b. Mālik رضي الله عنه reports: Abu Talḥa said to Um Sulaym, “I have heard the voice of Allah’s Messenger ﷺ reflecting weakness, and I could recognize hunger in it. Do you have anything?” She said, “Yes.” She pulled out several wheat loaves, wrapped them in her veil, then tucked them under my arm and wrapped me with the remaining part of the veil. She sent me to the Messenger of Allah ﷺ and, upon reaching the mosque, I found people with him. I stood beside them, until the Messenger of Allah ﷺ said to me, “Did Abu Talḥa send you?” I said, “Yes.” He said, “With food?” I said, “Yes.” The Messenger of Allah ﷺ then said to the people, “Let us go.” They took off, and I took off in front of them until I reached Abu Talḥa and informed him. Abu Talḥa said, “O Um Sulaym, the Messenger of Allah ﷺ has come, accompanied by the people, and we have nothing to feed them.” She said, “Allah and His Messenger know best.” Upon arrival, the Messenger of Allah ﷺ said, “O Um Sulaym, what do you have?” She presented that same bread, which the Prophet ﷺ took and shredded, and then Um Sulaym emptied her jar of shortening (butter) over it as a condiment. The Messenger of Allah ﷺ then supplicated over it for however long he wished before saying, “Permit for ten [to enter].” They were permitted entrance and ate to their fill before leaving. Then he said, “Permit for ten.” They too were permitted entrance and ate to their fill before leaving. Then he said, “Permit for ten.” Everyone ate in this fashion, until they all had their fill, and they were seventy or eighty men in total.[16]

Answered Prayers

Al-Qāḍi ‘Iyāḍ (d. 1149) says, “The Prophet’s ﷺ supplications being answered for those he prayed for and against is mutawātir in principle, known by necessity.”[17] He meant that God responded to the prayers of the Prophet ﷺ on so many occasions, and this was corroborated by testimony from so many directions, that doubting it would be utterly irrational. An outnumbered and unequipped Muslim army was granted victory by God at the Battle of Badr, milk was drawn from the udders of a non-lactating goat, and rain poured from a cloudless sky—all by virtue of the Prophet ﷺ raising his palms to the heavens, and those who spent the shortest time with him witnessed these events, and were driven to conviction by them.

Anas رضي الله عنه narrates that as the Prophet ﷺ was once delivering a Friday sermon, a man rose up and said, “O Messenger of Allah, the horses and sheep have perished; will you not invoke Allah to bless us with rain?” The Prophet ﷺ proceeded to lift his two hands and supplicated at a time when the sky was as clear as glass. Suddenly wind blew, driving together the clouds and causing heavy rain. We exited [the mosque] wading through the flowing water till we reached our homes. It kept raining until the following Friday, when the same man—or another man—stood up and said, “O Messenger of Allah ﷺ, the houses have [almost] collapsed; please ask Allah to withhold the rain!” On that, the Prophet ﷺ smiled and said, “O Allah, [let it rain] around us and not upon us.” I looked to the clouds and found them separating into a crown-like formation around Madinah.[18]

Abu Hurayra رضي الله عنه narrates that he once came to the Prophet ﷺ with tears in his eyes, which caused him to ask, “What makes you cry, O Abu Hurayrah?” He said, “I have not stopped inviting my mother to Islam but she continues to reject it. Today, I invited her again and heard from her painful words about you. Pray that Allah opens the heart of Abu Hurayra’s mother to Islam.” The Prophet ﷺ obliged and said, “O Allah, guide the mother of Abu Hurayra.” Abu Hurayra narrates: I left hopeful from the prayer of the Prophet ﷺ and returned home to find the door partially open and could hear water splashing inside. When my mother heard my footsteps, she said, “Stay where you are, O Abu Hurayra.” After putting on her clothes, she instructed me to enter. When I entered, she said, “I testify that none is worthy of worship but Allah, and I testify that Muhammad is His servant and messenger.” I returned to the Prophet ﷺ while weeping with joy, just as an hour earlier I had gone weeping in sadness, and said, “Great news, O Messenger of Allah! Allah has answered your prayer and guided the mother of Abu Hurayra to Islam.” He praised Allah and thanked Him, and then I said, “O Messenger of Allah, pray that Allah make my mother and I beloved to His believing slaves, and make them beloved to us.” He ﷺ obliged, and there has not been a believing slave who hears of me, or sees me, except that he loves me.[19]

‘Abdullāh b. ‘Abbās رضي الله عنهما narrates: I once placed water for the Prophet ﷺ upon him entering the lavatory, so that he could perform his ablution. He ﷺ asked, “Who placed this?” They informed him that I had placed it, so he said, “O Allah, grant him a deep understanding of the religion, and teach him to interpret [the Qur’an].”[20] Shortly after the Prophet’s death, even the senior-most Companions recognized that this young man had developed a unique prowess when it came to understanding the Qur’an and elucidating its nuances. Fourteen centuries later, nearly every credible work on Qur’anic commentary from Sunni scholarship considers the explanations of Ibn ‘Abbās authoritative, is filled with examples of his exegetical forte, and testifies to him being Turjumān al-Qur’ān (the Master Interpreter of the Qur’an).

Anas b. Malik رضي الله عنه narrates: The Messenger of Allah ﷺ once visited us at home while nobody was there but myself, my mother (Um Sulaym), and her sister (Um Ḥarām). My mother said to him, “O Messenger of Allah, this is your little servant (Anas); invoke Allah’s blessings upon him.” He ﷺ supplicated that I be afforded every good, and this is what he said to conclude his supplication: “O Allah, increase him in his wealth and progeny, and bless him in what you grant him.” By Allah, my wealth has certainly become abundant, and my children and grandchildren [together] certainly surpass a hundred today.[21]

‘Abdullāh b. ‘Umar رضي الله عنهما narrates that the Prophet ﷺ said, “O Allah, honor Islam through the dearest of these two men to you: through Abu Jahl or through ‘Umar b. al-Khaṭṭāb.” Ibn ‘Umar said, “And the dearest of them turned out to be ‘Umar.”[22] Indeed, no person from the Prophet’s Companions honored Islam by advancing its public presence like ‘Umar رضي الله عنه, as Ibn Mas‘ūd رضي الله عنه used to say, “We remained powerful since the moment ‘Umar embraced Islam.”[23] Even after the Prophet’s death, it was the unique impact of ‘Umar in spreading the light of Islam that compelled the historian Michael Hart to showcase him in his book, The 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History.[24]

Abu ‘Umra al-Anṣāri رضي الله عنه reports: During a battle alongside the Messenger of Allah ﷺ, the people once again suffered from great hunger, and ‘Umar رضي الله عنه said, “O Messenger of Allah, if you see [it proper], you can collect what remains of our rations. We can gather them, then you can call upon Allah to bless them, for Allah the Blessed and Exalted will certainly deliver us with your supplication.” Some people brought a single handful, and nobody had more than a sâ‘ of dates. The Messenger of Allah ﷺ gathered it all together, then stood and supplicated for as long as Allah willed. Then, he called the army to come forth with their containers and fill them, and there did not remain a single container in the whole army except that they filled it! The Messenger of Allah ﷺ smiled until his molars could be seen, and said, “I testify that none is worthy of worship except Allah and that I am the Messenger of Allah. No slave meets Allah with these two [statements] except that the Fire is veiled from him on the Day of Resurrection.”[25]

Ibn Taymiya says, “It is known that when Allah accustoms someone to having their prayers answered, this only happens in conjunction with righteousness and religiosity. When someone claims prophethood, they are either the most pious person—in the case they are truthful—or the most wicked person—in the case they are lying. But when Allah accustoms them to answering their supplications, then [it must be that] they are not wicked but instead pious. Even if the claim of prophethood was only accompanied by righteousness [from the claimant, without miracles], it would necessitate him being a genuine prophet, for such a person cannot be someone who deliberately lies, nor can he be some deluded person who assumes that he is a prophet.”[26]

The Night Journey

Allah (Most High) says, “Glory be to the One Who took His servant [Muhammad] by night from the Sacred Mosque to the Farthest Mosque whose surroundings We have blessed, so that We may show him of Our signs. Indeed, He Alone is the All-Hearing, All-Seeing” (Qur’an 17:1).

بِسۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
سُبۡحٰنَ الَّذِىۡۤ اَسۡرٰى بِعَبۡدِهٖ لَيۡلًا مِّنَ الۡمَسۡجِدِ الۡحَـرَامِ اِلَى الۡمَسۡجِدِ الۡاَقۡصَا الَّذِىۡ بٰرَكۡنَا حَوۡلَهٗ لِنُرِيَهٗ مِنۡ اٰيٰتِنَا‌ ؕ اِنَّهٗ هُوَ السَّمِيۡعُ الۡبَصِيۡرُ‏ ﴿۱﴾

The Prophet Muhammad ﷺ was taken from Mecca to Jerusalem and back in a single night; a journey that would ordinarily take a full month for any traveller in the 7th century. When the pagans caught scent of this story being shared the following morning, they became jubilant with hopes of finally proving Muhammad was a madman. They rushed to gather everyone around him, and to their delight, people literally fell off their seats in laughter upon hearing this ‘ludicrous tale’ from the Prophet ﷺ. Saddened by their mockery and disbelief, he ﷺ proceeded to the Ka‘ba where he praised God and asked Him to be reshown Jerusalem. To the dismay of everyone present, the Prophet ﷺ then began describing that blessed city in inexplicable detail, as if he was walking through it at that very moment. People nervously turned to the Meccan traders who—unlike Muhammad—were known to frequent Jerusalem, only to find them admitting his accuracy. Many still denied him and stormed out in frustration.

The Miracle of the Quran

Hadith on Quran: The Quran is greatest miracle of the Prophet.

Abu Huraira reported: The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said, “There were none among the prophets but that he was given unique signs to instill faith in humanity. Verily, I have been given the revelation that Allah has inspired in me, so I hope to have the most followers on the Day of Resurrection.”

Source: Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī 6846, Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim 152

Grade: Muttafaqun Alayhi (authenticity agreed upon) according to Al-Bukhari and Muslim

All scholars of Islam believe that the Qur’an is the greatest miracle of the Prophet of Islam (S).

When we say the most superior, it is because, in the first place, the Qur’an is not an intellectual miracle but rather has to do with the spirit and intellect of the people and secondly, it is eternal and everlasting and third, it is a miracle which has cried out for 14 centuries.

It says: “If you do not believe that this is a Book of God, bring one like it.” This invitation to an equivalent or something like it or challenge has appeared several times in the Holy Qur’an. In one place it says:

“Say: If the whole of humanity and jinn were to gather together to produce the life of this Qur’an, they could not produce the like thereof, even if they backed up each other with help and support. “(17:88)

بِسۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
قُلْ لَّٮِٕنِ اجۡتَمَعَتِ الۡاِنۡسُ وَالۡجِنُّ عَلٰٓى اَنۡ يَّاۡتُوۡا بِمِثۡلِ هٰذَا الۡقُرۡاٰنِ لَا يَاۡتُوۡنَ بِمِثۡلِهٖ وَلَوۡ كَانَ بَعۡضُهُمۡ لِبَعۡضٍ ظَهِيۡرًا‏ ﴿۸۸﴾  

In another place, it has made the condition for the bringing of something like it even easier. It says:

“Bring ten suras forged like unto it and call to your aid whomever you can other than God if you speak the truth. “ (11: 13)

بِسۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
اَمۡ يَقُوۡلُوۡنَ افۡتَـرٰٮهُ‌ ؕ قُلۡ فَاۡتُوۡا بِعَشۡرِ سُوَرٍ مِّثۡلِهٖ مُفۡتَرَيٰتٍ وَّ ادۡعُوۡا مَنِ اسۡتَطَعۡتُمۡ مِّنۡ دُوۡنِ اللّٰهِ اِنۡ كُنۡتُمۡ صٰدِقِيۡنَ‏ ﴿۱۳﴾ 

“If they (your false gods) answer not your (call), know that this Revelation is sent down (replete) with the knowledge of God… “(11:14)

بِسۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
فَاِلَّمۡ يَسۡتَجِيۡبُوۡا لَـكُمۡ فَاعۡلَمُوۡۤا اَنَّمَاۤ اُنۡزِلَ بِعِلۡمِ اللّٰهِ وَاَنۡ لَّاۤ اِلٰهَ اِلَّا هُوَ‌ۚ فَهَلۡ اَنۡتُمۡ مُّسۡلِمُوۡنَ‏ ﴿۱۴﴾ 

“And if you are in doubt about that which We have revealed to Our Servant, then bring a surah like it and call your witnesses, other than God, if you are truthful.” (2:23)

بِسۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
وَاِنۡ کُنۡتُمۡ فِىۡ رَيۡبٍ مِّمَّا نَزَّلۡنَا عَلٰى عَبۡدِنَا فَاۡتُوۡا بِسُوۡرَةٍ مِّنۡ مِّثۡلِهٖ وَادۡعُوۡا شُهَدَآءَكُمۡ مِّنۡ دُوۡنِ اللّٰهِ اِنۡ كُنۡتُمۡ صٰدِقِيۡنَ‏ ﴿۲۳﴾

In the next verse, it directly states:

“But if you do not and you shall never do — guard yourselves against the fire.” (2:24)

بِسۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ

فَاِنۡ لَّمۡ تَفۡعَلُوۡا وَلَنۡ تَفۡعَلُوۡا فَاتَّقُوۡا النَّارَ الَّتِىۡ وَقُوۡدُهَا النَّاسُ وَالۡحِجَارَةُ  ۖۚ اُعِدَّتۡ لِلۡكٰفِرِيۡنَ‏ ﴿۲۴﴾

These continuous and successive invitations to challenge the Qur’an show that the Holy Prophet placed the greatest of emphasis and importance upon the miracle of the Qur’an even though many other miracles have been recorded about the Prophet and have appeared in books on Islamic history.

As the Holy Qur’an is a living miracle, we will, in this discussion, give greater emphasis to it.

How it has remained important in face of this challenge It is interesting that the Holy Qur’an places the greatest emphasis upon inviting the opponents to the arena and with stimulating comparisons, it challenges them to enter the arena so that no excuse remain for anyone.

Words like, “If you speak the truth…”, “You can never do so…”, “Even if you seek help from all of humanity…”, “Bring at least one verse like it…”, “If you become a kafir, a flaming fire is awaiting you…” speak of this truth.

These are all on one side. On the other side, the struggle of the Holy Prophet with the opponents was not a simple struggle, because Islam not only endangered their religion which they firmly supported, but also endangered their economic, political interests and even their very existence.

In other words, the progress and influence of Islam caused all of the lives to be turned upside down. Thus, they were obliged to come to the arena with all of their power and force.

No matter what the cost, in order to disarm the Holy Prophet, they would have to bring a verse like a verse of the Holy Qur’an so that they could no longer rely on the Qur’an as a miracle, and everyone who believed in it would become defective and it would become a document for proving their truth.

They invited all of the Arabs who were learned scholars to help them but every time that they tried to challenge the Holy Qur’an, they were defeated and they very readily retreated. The story of these events have been recorded in the history books.

The Story of Walid ibn Mughayrah

Among the people invited to this challenge was Walid ibn Mughayrah from the Bani Makhzum who was famous at that time among the Arabs for his literary abilities.

They asked him to think about this challenge and to give his opinion about the miraculous verses of the Qur’an and its extraordinary influence.

Walid asked the Holy Prophet to recite a verse of the Holy Qur’an for him. The Holy Prophet recited a verse from Surah Ha Mim (as-Sajdah, n.32).

This verse caused such excitement in Walid that he, without thinking, arose from his place and left the group of the Bani Makhzum which had been formed, saying, “I swear by God that I have heard words from Muhammad which neither resembled the words of human beings nor the fairies.

“His words have a special tone and a particular beauty. They are like a branch of a tree which bears a great deal of fruit; they are words which are victorious over all things and nothing will be victorious over them.” These words caused the Quraysh to whisper among themselves, “Walid has lost his heart to Muhammad.”

Abu Jahl, in a state of anxiety, went to his home and told him what the Quraysh were saying. He invited him to a meeting of theirs.

Walid went to their group and said, “Do you think Muhammad is crazy? Have you seen the effects of insanity in him?”

Those who were present said, “No.”

“Do you think that he is a liar? Was he not famous to date among you for his truthfulness and his trustworthiness? Did you not call him a truthful and trustworthy person?”

Some of the leaders of the Quraysh said, “Then what should we call him, what should we relate him to?”

Walid thought a bit and then said, “He is a magician.”

Even though they tried to turn the common people away from the Qur’an, which they were attracted to, this commentary of ‘magic’ was itself living proof of the extraordinary attraction of the Holy Qur’an and they called this attraction, bewitchment while it had nothing to do with magic.

It was because of this that the Quraysh spread this opinion everywhere that Muhammad is a magician and these verses are his magic, keep away from him and try not to listen to what he is saying. But in spite of all of their efforts and endeavors, their plan had no effect. The thirsty were everywhere and plentiful. They had pure hearts and group by group, they joined the Qur’an. They drank of the pure water of the heavenly message and the enemy, defeated, retreated.

The Holy Qur’an, today, challenges all of the people of the world and invites them to struggle against it. It cries out, “If you doubt the truth of these verses and you think that it is born of human thought, bring its like. O scholars, philosophers and literary persons, writers from whatever nation or people!”

We also know that the enemies of Islam, in particular, Christian priests, who know Islam to be a revolutionary school, full of meaning, a strong competitor and a danger to it, every year spend millions of dollars to spread anti-Islamic propaganda.

They are active in Islamic countries under the cover of culture, science and health. What would happen if they made the way closer, if they were to invite Arab-Christian scholars, poets, writers and philosophers to write verses like the verses of the Holy Qur’an to silence the Muslims?

It is clear that if such a thing were possible, at whatever the cost, they would do so.
The very fact that they are unable to do so is a proof before the opponents and proof of the miracle of the Qur’an.

The Quran also has many other miracles of signs and science. I am not going to write about them all but you can go to this link and listen to the lectures about some of them at your own leisure.

References

  1. Ibn Ḥajar al-‘Asqalāni, Fatḥ al-Bāri, 6/592.
  2. See: Naẓm al-Mutanāthir,  263.
  3. Ibn Ḥajar al-‘Asqalāni, Fatḥ al-Bāri, 6/603.
  4. Ismā‘īl b. Kathīr, al-Bidāya wan-Nihāya, 9/353.
  5. Yaḥyā an-Nawawi, Sharḥ Ṣaḥiḥ Muslim,Dar Ihyā’ at-Turāth al-‘Arabi, Beirut (1971), 15/38.
  6. Collected by al-Bukhāri (3579) and at-Tirmidhi (3633).
  7. Collected by al-Bukhāri (3576, 4152, 5639).
  8. Collected by al-Bukhāri (3572, 3573, 3574).
  9. Yūsuf b. ‘Abdil-Barr, at-Tamhīd,Awqāf Ministry, Morocco (1967), 1/220.
  10. Collected by Muslim (1729).
  11. Yaḥyā an-Nawawi, Sharḥ Ṣaḥiḥ Muslim,12/35.
  12. Collected by al-Bukhāri (2709, 2127).\
  13. sâ‘is a container which measures volume, comparable to a large salad bowl, and is equivalent to 3 liters.
  14. Collected by Muslim (2056).
  15. Collected by al-Bukhāri (4101, 4102) and Muslim (2039).
  16. Collected by al-Bukhāri (3578) and Muslim (2040).
  17. ‘Iyad b. Musā, ash-Shifā bi Ḥuqūq al-Musṭafā, Dār al-Fikr, Beirut (2002), p. 321.
  18. Collected by al-Bukhāri (1013, 3582).
  19. Collected by Muslim (2491).
  20. Collected by al-Bukhāri (143), Muslim (2477), and Ahmad (2397, 2879).
  21. Collected by al-Bukhāri (6334) and Muslim (2481).
  22. Collected by Ahmad (311, 5696) and authenticated by Ahmad Shākir and at-Tirmidhi (3681) who authenticated it, as did al-Albāni in Ṣaḥīḥ at-Tirmidhi.
  23. Collected by al-Bukhāri (3684).
  24. Hart, Michael H. The 100: A ranking of the most influential persons in history. 1978, Citadel Press.
  25. Collected by Muslim (27) and Ahmad (3/417).
  26. Aḥmad b. Taymiya, al-Jawāb aṣ-Ṣaḥīḥli-man Baddala Dīn al-Masīḥ, Dār al-‘Aṣima, KSA (1999), 6/297.

THE HOLY QUR’AN

Christians and people of other faiths think they know the Quran because they can read the translations and therefor understand but in reality they have no understanding at all. English translated verses are most often quoted out of context and with no understanding. In light of this, it is important to give you a bit more information so that you can better understand.

The first thing you need to understand is that the Arabic Language is far superior to English which only came into existence in the 5th century. Arabic was never designed to be written. It is a spoken language designed to carry so much information in fewer words that sounds poetic and hence it is easy to remember. That is why most of Arabic history is memorised by heart in poetry.  Most of the spoken Arabic in written form was greatly enhanced after Quran came into existence. Quran was so superior that it challenged the primitive Arabic form of writing to be further developed to match the spoken Arabic and especially something in the quality of Quran. So dots were added to the letters to differentiate letters that look the same when written but are pronounced differently, and markings to define the different voices of each letter. Some more to define how to voice sentences.

Arabic poems are musical to listen to without music. It begs to be listened not read or written.

Just listening to the Quran being read will give most people goosebumps even though they don’t know what it means; it just sounds so regal, so tranquil. This is superior to all other languages. To Arabic speakers there are so many layers and spectrum of meanings we hear in it that it renders us in awe and wonder. Even to old Arabs, 1443 years ago, it didn’t sound like a poem nor a music nor normal spoken Arabic. It sounded much more, unearthly. It was pushing the extreme maximum capacity of the Arabic language which is considered a formidable language by all, meaning to carry the most complex of meanings. Then came the Quran to use the language in a way never known before, nothing as beautiful. People turned to Islam just for listening to the Quran. Because it is so wonderful and mesmerizing to listen to. The beauty of the Quran is such that even a person who does not understand what is read will be moved emotionally and spiritually, just feeling the recitation in your heart before listening with your ears.

Arabic is not a one dimensional language like other languages, it is multi dimensional as it carries the emotions in the tone, and in the words, meanings. While it carries logic and information on top of all that too. Arabic is therefore a superior Language as it:

  • Carries emotions in its tone.
  • Carries emotions in the words meanings.
  • Carries logic.
  • Carries information.
  • Carries neurological programming quality in a way that is hypnotic.
  • Compacts all of the above in fewer words compared to any other language. A single mark can change a word’s meaning, thus a whole sentence.
  • Very logical to write. Almost mathematical in its grammatical rules.
  • Written by the voice in a set of rules. In English and other languages you have to memorize the spelling. Not the case in Arabic, once you know the rules you can write anything you hear.
  • The above points make it easier to preserve the text for thousands of years even if it’s not written. That doesn’t only apply to Quran but also to old poems too that were there written before Quran even. People just memorize it; again it’s a language that was designed to be memorable not written, for desert roaming people did not want to bother with writing much. It is designed in a way if someone recites a poem you know but barely remember it, and they recited a single word wrong, it would sound wrong to your ears. Thus easier to correct and preserve.

Arabic is not a simple language, it is a superior way of conveying thoughts. Scholars describe Arabic by saying “its Magical” and here is why:

  • Composed out of 29 letters (though most say 28 but the first letter Aleph is a combination of two ا and ء)
  • You have a very high probability of picking any 3 letters randomly and come up with at least one or up to six different meaningful words plus many more depending on the way it’s pronounced (use of diacritics.)
  • Most Arabic words generate from 3 lettered masculine past tense verbs called “Roots” from which all types of different verbs, adverbs, nouns, subjects, objects, adjectives, etc… are derived.
  • Roots can also be from 4, and some even consider 5 and 6 letters. Words from two letters are very common, even there are 20 words from a single letter (two thirds of the Alphabet.)
  • The number of conjugation words made up from a combination of 3 letters is astonishing. Can go up to hundreds even more from a single root.
  • Many sentences can be formed out of one word. Take for instance this word mentioned in Qur’an (أنلزمكموها) it translates into a full sentence in English: “Shall we (God) compel you (plural 3 or more) to accept it”
  • The language is extremely concise you can get a full size A4 English letter and translate it into same size Arabic font for less than a half page.
  • Today’s practice of combining letters of different words to come up with a new acronym is a pretty old Arabic language practice, it is called نحت “Nahet” (word sculpture.) Such as بسملة and حوقلة and تهليل and حمدلة.
  • Arabic language is very rich, can indicate singular, dual, plural (3 or more), masculine, feminine, other creatures, things, and magnitude of synonyms…
  • Qur’an as a 1450 years old text is the single & unique book that modern formal Arabic language is built on, around and preserved.

To demonstrate, let us take the following 3 letters as an example: ك ت ب written as كتب

In English it reads : Ka Ta Ba meaning “he wrote”

For singular feminine gender add one letter at end كتبت “she wrote”

For dual masculine كتبا

For dual feminine كتبتا

For plural 3 or more masculine كتبوا

For plural feminine كتبن

And so on….. it is just the beginning for the multi layered conjugations.

This small word is not just about writing.Its derivatives are enormous, indicating books, libraries, envelopes, writers, offices, desks etc.

Can easily spend an hour trying to put all possible combinations of these 3 letters by adding prefixes, infixes, suffixes, singular, dual (2 persons), or plural (3 or more persons), past tense, present, future, exaggeration, genders, known, unknown subjects, etc….

Here’s a complete sentence of words derived from these three letters:

كتب الكاتبون والكاتبات كتبهم بالمكتبة

English: “The male writers (3 or more) and female writers (>3) wrote their books (>3) in the library”

And so on..

To get more sophisticated, it’s not just how you write a particular word, it’s also how you pronounce it, that it matters the most.

Early linguistic scholars, such as the brilliant mathematician Al-Khalil ibn Ahmad al-Farahidi – Wikipedia (100-170 AH) had to devise set of signs (diacritics) lightly highlighted above or below letters to differentiate phonetic vowels.

For instance the above example word كتب can be read in three different tones:

Ka Ta Ba=the male wrote or he wrote (singular masculine past tense)

Ku Tee Ba= it has been written (unknown affirmative singular or plural any gender past tense)

or: Ku Tu B= Books

All three words are written exactly the same, but pronounced differently, diacritics make the difference, but are hidden (not necessary to show) proper pronunciation is practically detected from context.

Another astonishing characteristic of word derivation is this:

Take any 3 lettered root word, play with letters order, in addition to ending up with several meaningful words (six or more), at many instances one of these words carries the opposite meaning of the original root. This is what Arabic linguistics call it the “grand” derivation (الاشتقاق الأكبر).

In case of our above example كتب to write (in one way it’s an act of revealing) the word كبت is to hide, to conceal.

Other meaningful derivations of same word are بكت بتك تكب تبك.

This is just the tip of the iceberg. I haven’t discussed the profound logic of grammar, the traditional Arabic poetry, the melody built within the language, the metaphor, etc….

Now can you tell me which language, still in use, as it was four to five thousand years ago? And that can offer such kind of advanced sophisticated syntax? And can come up with texts that covers all possible meanings?

Which language can give such diversity and with continuous living inspiration?

Now for comparing with Qur’an, it is the most sophisticated Arabic text, it was interpreted in thousands of Arabic written volumes, linguistically, historically, biographies, ethically, prose, poetry, and nowadays interpretation trend is concentrated on scientific and mathematical implications. Its meanings have been translated into most living languages, including over 100 translations in the English language alone!

No wonder God’s final revelation to earth was in Arabic!

Allah (swt) said: (notice diacritics above and below letters and size of English translation)

بِسۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ

وَلَوۡ اَنَّ مَا فِى الۡاَرۡضِ مِنۡ شَجَرَةٍ اَقۡلَامٌ وَّالۡبَحۡرُ يَمُدُّهٗ مِنۡۢ بَعۡدِهٖ سَبۡعَةُ اَبۡحُرٍ مَّا نَفِدَتۡ كَلِمٰتُ اللّٰهِ‌ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰهَ عَزِيۡزٌ حَكِيۡمٌ‏ ﴿۲۷﴾

And if whatever trees upon the earth were pens and the sea [was ink], replenished thereafter by seven [more] seas, the words of Allah would not be exhausted. Indeed, Allah is Exalted in Might and Wise.” (Qur’an 31:27

The word Quran given to this Holy Scripture, `the Quran` (al-Quran). This is a name that the Almighty Allah has given to the Book. From the first years of the revelation to Prophet Muhammad ﷺ it was called `the Quran` by the revelation itself. The term is repeated 68 times in the Quran, and except on two occasions (17:78), it means the Holy Quran.

In English it is written `the Koran` or `the Quran`.

About the meaning of the term `Quran`, there are two meanings:

1) it is driven from al-Qar` meaning `to collect`.
2) It is driven from `Qara` (to recite).

Thus, it is called `the Quran` for it is a Book to be recited, or because the revelation began by `Read` (96:1).

What is important to note about this is that the Quran is a recitation of the scripture in the original language. At the time of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ to be elegant in speech and poetry was very important if you were to be taken serious. The Arabs held a high regard for intellectual articulation and literacy. One needed to be able to speak well if you wanted to draw the attention of the people. When the Quran was revealed, the standard of its speech was so high that it stood until today as the Gold standard for the Arabic Language. The language of the Quran is so high that even today an Arab person who has not learnt how to read the Quran is not able to do so properly. As Quranic text is different from the written Arabic Language. Below you can see the difference:

Typical Spoken Arabic

Quranic Arabic

As you can see above the Quranic text has vowels attached to the letters where as the normal Arabic text has none. The reason for this is that Quran needs to be read with what is referred to as Tajweed. Tajweed of the Quran is the knowledge and application of the rules of recitation, so the reading of the Quran is as recited and taught to the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ by the Angel Gabriel. This is something that must be taught by a teacher of knowledge and not something that one can learn by one’s self. If the words are not pronounced properly and in a certain way it can alter the meaning, that is how serious proper recitation is.

As mentioned, Quran is recitation and must be read with certain rules and in a certain method placing emphases on certain letters, pulling other letters, pronouncing certain letters from the throut and from the pallet etc. Remember at the time people could articulate themselves very well with poetry. Please play the video below and listen for a few minutes so that you can understand how Quran is recited.

You will find this to be a another miracle as the method of recitation is such that with the rules of recitation unlike spoken Arabic renders it a completely beautiful and rhythmic in its audible form as well as the message it gives.

The recitation is so unique that poets at the time tried to prove they could also produce poetry in a beautiful manner while still giving God’s message but their poetry could in no way give God’s message and rhyme at the same time. God Challengers anyone to produce anything better or similar and no one until today could manage even a few lines. 

 

And if you are in doubt about what We have sent down upon Our Servant [Muhammad], then produce a surah the like thereof and call upon your witnesses other than Allah, if you should be truthful. But if you do not – and you will never be able to – then fear the Fire, whose fuel is men and stones, prepared for the disbelievers. (Quran2: 23-24)

From this you can see that it is impossible for an unlettered man like Muhammad ﷺ to have produced such a masterpiece.

Look at your bible in the original text and in English and see when you read it if there is any beauty in the way you read it both in the orginal or English or any language? I am not refering to the hims which Christians sing. These are just English text which Christians sing as a song.  As soon as one tries to sing Quran verses you can no longer abide by the rules of tajweed and thus you will render the recitation incorrect and the followers will dismiss that reader. That is why you find preachers particularly in America who apply a sort of singing approach when they preach so as to move the people. 

The language in itself of the Quran is also another miracle as no person at the time could speak such high language let alone an unlettered man which proves that It was not Muhammad’s ﷺ words. In order to see the level of the language one has to understand Arabic as the English translation cannot do justice as you can see from the above expiations. To get the full understanding of the Quran one has to refer to the Tafseer of the Quran where the full meanings are unlocked and explained. One such book of Tafseer is Ma’ariful Quran which is transmitted in 10 volumes each larger than the Quran itself. As explained, Arabic can transmit a lot of information in a few lines compare to English and the Quran is even more complex.

If God willed, he would certainly given Muhammad ﷺ the ability to read and write but the fact that he was unlettered showed the people that it could not be his words notwithstanding the fact that no one could produce anything like it even today.

Muslims have to perform the Salah or prayer and recite verses from the Quran in Arabic while in the standing position in the proper manner and must be done from memory and not reading directly from the Quran as you have seen from the video. During the Month of Ramadaan (month of fast) Muhammad ﷺ (and by association all Muslims) was ordered by Allah to read the entire Quran in a special Salah after the fifth prayer of the day by memory called the Taraweeh Salaah. During this month each night reciting one part (Juzz) as there are 30 days of fast and 30 parts. This cannot be recited randomly and must be recited in the order that God had ordered its organizational structure. Muhammad ﷺ did nothing on his own, he only followed the orders of Allah Almighty. For this very reason the Quran is only in the original language.

For understanding of the verses you find a quick translation in English and other languages and you will see the cover tells you clearly English Translation of the Holy Quran and it also tells you who the translator is. For more detailed information you have to turn to the books of Tafseer as mentioned. This translation is not the word of God but the opinion of translation. You will therefor find many translations in English by various translators. You will also find the Quran translated into other dialects of Arabic and again, these are translations as those people speak a different dialects of Arabic than that of the Quran so it is difficult for them to understand at times. This is where Christians get very confused and state there are different versions in English and Arabic when they are merely translations. 

Therefor you will only find one Quran, there are no versions of the Quran like what you find with the Bible that you pray from. The Quran is the same as read by the Prophet ﷺ in his own tongue and is the same Quran that millions of Muslims memorize. People who has memorized the entire Quran is called a Hafiz. You can ask any Hafiz in the world to recite the Quran for you and every one of them will recite the exact same verses word for word.

If anyone makes even the slightest mistake he is immediately rectified. We have found on many occasions that certain evil religious groups has tried in vain to print Qurans where they have changed words to mislead Muslims but these mistakes are picked up immediately and those so called false qurans are burnt. You can see such deceitful acts on the right in the figure. 

The details of when and how the Quran was written down and came to be one complete book is very long and detailed so I will summarise the important facts only. The Quran was revealed by the Angel Gabriel to Muhammad ﷺ over a period of 23 years. The Prophet Muhammad ﷺ was 40 years old when he first received revelation from God and the last of the revelation of the Quran was completed when he was 63 years old which was also the year of his death. There are incredibly detailed written accounts of how he received revelation, when it was written down and who decided the order of the Quran. For the proof of authenticity of when the Quran was written down and complied into a complete book we have two sources namely the Quran itself and the Hadiths narrated by Muhammad’s ﷺ closest companions and friends. The Tafseer of the Quran also gives us much detail about the events.

QURANIC EVIDANCE 

THE QURAN WAS PUT TOGETHER BY GOD’S DECREE DURING THE LIFETIME OF THE PROPHET (PBUH)

بِسۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
وَقَالَ الَّذِيۡنَ كَفَرُوۡا لَوۡلَا نُزِّلَ عَلَيۡهِ الۡـقُرۡاٰنُ جُمۡلَةً وَّاحِدَةً‌  ‌ۛۚ كَذٰلِكَ ‌ۛۚ لِنُثَبِّتَ بِهٖ فُـؤَادَكَ‌ وَرَتَّلۡنٰهُ تَرۡتِيۡلًا‏ ﴿۳۲﴾

And those who disbelieve say: Why is the Qur’an not revealed unto him all at once? (It is revealed) thus that We may strengthen thy heart therewith; and We have arranged it in right order. (Quran 25:32)

There are some key terms here that enhance understanding and context.

  • The phrase ‘Ratalnahu tartila’ clearly denotes the well constructed action of putting together of component parts into one integral whole endowing the complete scripture with an ‘airtight’ inner consistency devoid of errors. Further usage of this term is discussed in the next section.
  • This response must be understood in the pretext of the charge being made against the Prophet in the same verse.
  • The disbelievers ask, ‘Why is the Quran not revealed to him all at once?’ i.e. as one integral unit (Jumlatan Wahida). Regardless of the obvious charge of the polemics of Islam at the time of the Prophet with this statement which hints at a Prophet of God revealing verses to suit certain conditions, the Quran’s statement clearly denies the insinuations and admits to a well planned and arranged structure despite its piecemeal revelation.
بِسۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
لَا تُحَرِّكۡ بِهٖ لِسَانَكَ لِتَعۡجَلَ بِهٖؕ‏ ﴿۱۶﴾  اِنَّ عَلَيۡنَا جَمۡعَهٗ وَقُرۡاٰنَهٗۚ  ۖ‏ ﴿۱۷﴾

Move not thy tongue concerning the (Qur’an) to make haste therewith. It is for Us to collect it and to promulgate it (Quran 75:16-17)

The above verse clearly states the purpose of God to collect it (The Quran) / put together and then to order its recitation.

THE QURAN WAS PUT TOGETHER BY THE PROPHET HIMSELF BY GOD’S DECREE

بِسۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
اَوۡ زِدۡ عَلَيۡهِ وَرَتِّلِ الۡقُرۡاٰنَ تَرۡتِيۡلًا ؕ‏ ﴿۴﴾

Or a little more, and arrange the Quran in its arrangement. (Quran 73:4)

Both the words rattilli and tartilan are formed of the same root word RA-TA-LAM which means to put something in order, to make even or well arranged/set together, to make correct or to put in the right state of arrangement.

We noted similar uses of the word in verse 25:32 which connects with the verse above. Therefore the arrangement of the Quran was not only put together in the lifetime of the Prophet (pbuh), but by the Prophet (pbuh) himself by God’s decree and under the Prophet’s (pbuh) supervision.

Whether this ‘arrangement’ is being instructed as a requirement during any recitation the Prophet (pbuh) may have made (as common translations seem to imply by the mention of ‘chanting’), the fact that an arrangement is being clearly instructed as an action on behalf of the Prophet (pbuh) is difficult to dispute.

Furthermore, the above verse provides strong indication of the Quran’s initial stages of revelation supported by a process of early arrangement as the next verse confirms.

بِسۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
اِنَّا سَنُلۡقِىۡ عَلَيۡكَ قَوۡلًا ثَقِيۡلًا‏ ﴿۵﴾

.

Indeed, We will cast upon you a heavy word. (Quran 73:5)

Therefore, the Quran at the point of verse 73:4 is still in its infancy and the Prophet would be ultimately charged with a ‘weighty’ word from God completed during the lifetime of his ministry (73:5). As the process of proper arrangement would be a continuous exercise working in tandem with revelation, it is clear that by the time of its completion, the Quran would also be fully arranged in a perfected order.

THE RELIGION WAS COMPLETED DURING THE LIFETIME OF THE PROPHET (PBUH)

بِسۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
حُرِّمَتۡ عَلَيۡكُمُ الۡمَيۡتَةُ وَالدَّمُ وَلَحۡمُ الۡخِنۡزِيۡرِ وَمَاۤ اُهِلَّ لِغَيۡرِ اللّٰهِ بِهٖ وَالۡمُنۡخَنِقَةُ وَالۡمَوۡقُوۡذَةُ وَالۡمُتَرَدِّيَةُ وَالنَّطِيۡحَةُ وَمَاۤ اَكَلَ السَّبُعُ اِلَّا مَا ذَكَّيۡتُمۡ وَمَا ذُ بِحَ عَلَى النُّصُبِ وَاَنۡ تَسۡتَقۡسِمُوۡا بِالۡاَزۡلَامِ‌ ؕ ذٰ لِكُمۡ فِسۡقٌ‌ ؕ اَلۡيَوۡمَ يَٮِٕسَ الَّذِيۡنَ كَفَرُوۡا مِنۡ دِيۡـنِكُمۡ فَلَا تَخۡشَوۡهُمۡ وَاخۡشَوۡنِ‌ ؕ اَ لۡيَوۡمَ اَكۡمَلۡتُ لَـكُمۡ دِيۡنَكُمۡ وَاَ تۡمَمۡتُ عَلَيۡكُمۡ نِعۡمَتِىۡ وَرَضِيۡتُ لَـكُمُ الۡاِسۡلَامَ دِيۡنًا‌ ؕ فَمَنِ اضۡطُرَّ فِىۡ مَخۡمَصَةٍ غَيۡرَ مُتَجَانِفٍ لِّاِثۡمٍ‌ۙ فَاِنَّ اللّٰهَ غَفُوۡرٌ رَّحِيۡمٌ‏‏ ﴿۳﴾

Prohibited to you are dead animals, blood, the flesh of swine, and that which has been dedicated to other than Allah, and [those animals] killed by strangling or by a violent blow or by a head-long fall or by the goring of horns, and those from which a wild animal has eaten, except what you [are able to] slaughter [before its death], and those which are sacrificed on stone altars, and [prohibited is] that you seek decision through divining arrows. That is grave disobedience. This day those who disbelieve have despaired of [defeating] your religion; so fear them not, but fear Me. This day I have perfected for you your religion and completed My favor upon you and have approved for you Islam as religion. But whoever is forced by severe hunger with no inclination to sin – then indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful. (Quran 5:3)

THE QURAN WAS WRITTEN DOWN BY THE NOBLE SCRIBES DURING THE TIME OF THE PROPHET

بِسۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
فِىۡ صُحُفٍ مُّكَرَّمَةٍۙ‏ ﴿۱۳﴾  مَّرۡفُوۡعَةٍ مُّطَهَّرَةٍ ۭۙ‏ ﴿۱۴﴾  بِاَيۡدِىۡ سَفَرَةٍۙ‏ ﴿۱۵﴾  كِرَامٍۢ بَرَرَةٍؕ‏ ﴿۱۶﴾

It is set down on honoured pages, exalted and purified, by the hands of noble and virtuous scribes. (Quran 80:13-16)

An Analyses of Key Terms:

Source: Edwards Lane Lexicon

THE RESPONSIBILITY OF THE PROTECTION OF THE QURAN IS WITH GOD AND NOT MEN

بِسۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
لَـقَالُوۡۤا اِنَّمَا سُكِّرَتۡ اَبۡصَارُنَا بَلۡ نَحۡنُ قَوۡمٌ مَّسۡحُوۡرُوۡنَ‏ ﴿۱۵﴾

Indeed, it is We who sent down the Qur’an and indeed, We will be its guardian. (Quran 15:09)

THE QURAN LEGITIMISES ITS OWN STUDY

The Quran clearly states with regards itself that:

  • It is a clear proof (6:157)
  • That it is a book in which its verses are explained in detail (41:3)
  • It is a manifest light (42:52)
  • That it fully explains to mankind in all kinds of ways and similitudes (39:27;17:89;18:54:)

Readers are asked to ‘tadabur’ on the Quran (Ponder, reflect, study ardently till the matter is completely clear) and follow it in strict terms:

Source: Edward Lane Lexicon

Think, meditate, endeavour to understand it, research it and study it repeatedly in order to know it.

From the Quran’s own consistency and message, it seems clear that the Quran took its final written form including its collation during the time of the Prophet ﷺ. It was the written and oral transmission working in tandem which most likely assisted in its preservation.

Please note the following comment by Dr. Adrian Alan Brockett and his view after conducting a comprehensive study of the Hafs and Warsh transmissions of the Quran.

“…Thus, if the Qur’an had been transmitted only orally for the first century, sizeable variations between texts such as in the hadith and pre-Islamic poetry would be found, and if it had been transmitted only in writing, sizeable variations such as those in different transmissions of the original document of the Constitution of Medina would be found. But neither is the case with the Qur’an. There must have been a parallel written transmission limiting variation in the oral transmission to the graphic form, side by side with a parallel oral transmission preserving the written transmission from corruption. The oral transmission of the Qur’an was essentially static, rather than organic. There was a single text, and nothing, not even allegedly abrogated material, could be taken out, nor anything be put in…” [20]

Before I continue to the second proof of when and how the Quran was written and when it was made a book I would like to clarify what many Christians say that the Quran was copied from the Bible and is a forgery. God clarifies this acquisition in the below verses.

بِسۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
نٓ‌ وَالۡقَلَمِ وَمَا يَسۡطُرُوۡنَۙ‏ ﴿۱﴾

Nun. By the pen and what they inscribe, (Quran 68:1)

سۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
اِقۡرَاۡ بِاسۡمِ رَبِّكَ الَّذِىۡ خَلَقَ‌ۚ‏ ﴿۱﴾  خَلَقَ الۡاِنۡسَانَ مِنۡ عَلَقٍ‌ۚ‏ ﴿۲﴾  اِقۡرَاۡ وَرَبُّكَ الۡاَكۡرَمُۙ‏ ﴿۳﴾  الَّذِىۡ عَلَّمَ بِالۡقَلَمِۙ‏ ﴿۴﴾

Recite in the name of your Lord who created – Created man from a clinging substance. Recite, and your Lord is the most Generous – Who taught by the pen – Taught man that which he knew not. (Quran 96: 1-5)

بِسۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
لَمۡ يَكُنِ الَّذِيۡنَ كَفَرُوۡا مِنۡ اَهۡلِ الۡكِتٰبِ وَالۡمُشۡرِكِيۡنَ مُنۡفَكِّيۡنَ حَتّٰى تَاۡتِيَهُمُ الۡبَيِّنَةُ ۙ‏ ﴿۱﴾  رَسُوۡلٌ مِّنَ اللّٰهِ يَتۡلُوۡا صُحُفًا مُّطَهَّرَةً ۙ‏ ﴿۲﴾  فِيۡهَا كُتُبٌ قَيِّمَةٌ ؕ‏ ﴿۳﴾

A Messenger from Allah, reciting purified scriptures Within which are correct writings. (Quran 98:2-3)

بِسۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
وَقَالُوۡۤا اَسَاطِيۡرُ الۡاَوَّلِيۡنَ اكۡتَتَبَهَا فَهِىَ تُمۡلٰى عَلَيۡهِ بُكۡرَةً وَّاَصِيۡلًا‏ ﴿۵﴾

And they say, “Legends of the former peoples which he has written down, and they are dictated to him morning and afternoon.”(Quran 25:05)

In this last verse above you see clearly that God foretells what Christians say that the Bible was dictated to Muhammad ﷺ. Then God tells you further in verses from in the same chapter:

Say, [O Muhammad], “It has been revealed by He who knows [every] secret within the heavens and the earth. Indeed, He is ever Forgiving and Merciful.” And they say, “What is this messenger that eats food and walks in the markets? Why was there not sent down to him an angel so he would be with him a warner?  Or [why is not] a treasure [mircales] presented to him [from heaven], or does he [not] have a garden from which he eats?” And the wrongdoers say, “You follow not but a man affected by magic.” Look how they strike for you comparisons; but they have strayed, so they cannot [find] a way. Blessed is He who, if He willed, could have made for you [something] better than that – gardens beneath which rivers flow – and could make for you palaces. 

But they have denied the Hour, and We have prepared for those who deny the Hour a Blaze. When the Hellfire sees them from a distant place, they will hear its fury and roaring. And when they are thrown into a narrow place therein bound in chains, they will cry out thereupon for destruction. Say, “Is that better or the Garden of Eternity which is promised to the righteous? It will be for them a reward and destination. For them therein is whatever they wish, [while] abiding eternally. It is ever upon your Lord a promise [worthy to be] requested. And [mention] the Day He will gather them and that which they worship besides Allah and will say, “Did you mislead these, My servants, or did they [themselves] stray from the way?” They will say, “Exalted are You! It was not for us to take besides You any allies. But You provided comforts for them and their fathers until they forgot the message and became a people ruined.” So they will deny you, [disbelievers], in what you say, and you cannot avert [punishment] or [find] help. And whoever commits injustice among you – We will make him taste a great punishment. And We did not send before you, [O Muhammad], any of the messengers except that they ate food and walked in the markets. And We have made some of you [people] as trial for others – will you have patience? And ever is your Lord, Seeing. (Quran 25:02-20)

Then God further tells us about the Christians who say that Allah did not reveal anything.

And they did not appraise Allah with true appraisal when they said, ” Allah did not reveal to a human being anything.” Say, “Who revealed the Scripture that Moses brought as light and guidance to the people? You [Jews] make it into pages, disclosing [some of] it and concealing much. And you were taught that which you knew not – neither you nor your fathers.” Say, ” Allah [revealed it].” Then leave them in their [empty] discourse, amusing themselves.(Quran 6:91)

By the mount And [by] a Book inscribed, In parchment spread open, And [by] the frequented House And [by] the heaven raised high And [by] the sea filled [with fire], Indeed, the punishment of your Lord will occur. Of it there is no preventer. On the Day the heaven will sway with circular motion And the mountains will pass on, departing – Then woe, that Day, to the deniers, Who are in [empty] discourse amusing themselves. The Day they are thrust toward the fire of Hell with a [violent] thrust, [its angels will say], “This is the Fire which you used to deny. Then is this magic, or do you not see? [Enter to] burn therein; then be patient or impatient – it is all the same for you. You are only being recompensed [for] what you used to do.” Indeed, the righteous will be in gardens and pleasure,..(Quran 52:1-17)

HADITH AND TAFSEER ON THE PRESERVATION OF THE HOLY QURAN [21]

MEMORIZING THE VERSES

From the very beginning of revelation Muhammad ﷺ would immediately repeat the revelation as to commit it to memory but God informed in surah Al-Qiyamah that he need not worry about forgetting the verses as they came from God and God would endow him with good memory that he would be unable to forget them.

Indeed, upon Us is its collection [in your heart] and [to make possible] its recitation. (Quran 75:17)

Thus, the Prophet’s ﷺ memory was the most protected vault of the Quran while he was alive of which there was no chance of even one letter being forgotten or any chance that the verses could be changed. Moreover, God used to send the Angel Gabriel to Muhammad once every year for Muhammad to recite the Quran back to the the Angel Gabriel to ensure its preservation is perfect. Gabriel came to Muhammad 24 times in his lifetime, once every year and twice in the last year before he passed away.

Fatimah reported: The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said, “Gabriel would come to me to revise the Quran once every year. This year he revised with me twice. I do not think it means anything but that my term will come to an end. Verily, you will be the first of the people of my house to meet me.” So I wept and the Prophet said, “Are you not pleased with be the master of the women of Paradise or the believing women?” So I laughed at that.

Source: Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī 3376

Grade: Sahih (authentic) according to Al-Bukhari

عَنْ فاطمة عَنْ النَّبِيّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ أَسَرَّ إِلَيَّ إِنَّ جِبْرِيلَ كَانَ يُعَارِضُنِي الْقُرْآنَ كُلَّ سَنَةٍ مَرَّةً وَإِنَّهُ عَارَضَنِي الْعَامَ مَرَّتَيْنِ وَلَا أُرَاهُ إِلَّا حَضَرَ أَجَلِي وَإِنَّكِ أَوَّلُ أَهْلِ بَيْتِي لَحَاقًا بِي فَبَكَيْتُ فَقَالَ أَمَا تَرْضَيْنَ أَنْ تَكُونِي سَيِّدَةَ نِسَاءِ أَهْلِ الْجَنَّةِ أَوْ نِسَاءِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ فَضَحِكْتُ لِذَلِكَ

3376 صحيح البخاري كتاب المناقب باب علامات النبوة في الإسلام

Muhammad ﷺ used to immediately also read the verses to his companions who memorized them and they he would insist that they read them back to him so that any mistakes could be rectified. Each of them would then teach the verses to others and repeat the process as it was essential in reading the verses in the Salah from memory. Women would forgo the dowry in exchange to also learn the verses. Hundreds of companions learned the verses as they were revealed. The fact that the Quran was revealed over 23 years gave everyone sufficient time to commit the verses to memory for the purpose of the prayers. God Almighty had also blessed the normal people with exceptional memory as many could not read or write. Even today we find that millions of people has memorized the Quran flawlessly.

Some of the companions who memorized the Quran including the four guided Caliphs are Sayydina Hudhayfah, ibn Yaman, Syyidna Salim Mowla abi Hudhayfah, Sayyidna Abdullah ibn Umar, Sayyidna Abdullar ibn Abbas, Sayyidna Amr ibn al-‘As, Sayyidna Abdulla ibn Umar, Sayyidna Mu’awiyah, Sayyidna Abdullar ibn Zubayr, Sayyidna Umm Salmah, may peace be upon them all.

THE WRITING OF THE WAHY (REVELATION)

Besides having the Quran committed to memory, Prophet Muhammad ﷺ had also made special arrangements to have the verses committed to writing as well.  Sayyidna Zayd ibn Thabit says: I used to write down the words of the Wahy (reverlation) for him. When Wahy came to him he felft burning with heat and the drops of perspiration would start rolling down his body like pearls. Hence this state would go away from him, I would present myself before him with  a shoulder-bone or a piece of something else. He would go on dictating and I would go on writing. When I would be finished with the writing, the sheer weight of copying the Quran would give me the feeling that my leg is going to break and I would never be able to walk. In any case, when I would be finished with writing, he would say: ‘Read’. I would read it back to him. If there was a shortcoming, he would have it corrected and them let be known to people. (Majma’al-zwaid with reference to Tabriani 1/156).

Besides Sayyidna Zayd ibn Thabit, there were many other companions who carried out the duty of committing the Wahy to writing.Some of those who can be specially mentioned, in addition to the Four Guided Caliphs, are Sayyidna Ubayy ibn Ka’b, Sayyidna Zubayr ibn Awwam, Sayyindna Mu’awiya, Sayyidna Mughirah inb Shu’bah, Sayyidna Khalid ibn al-Walid, Sayyidna Thabit ibn al-Qays, Sayyidna Aban ibn Sh’id and others. (Fath al-Bari, 9/18)

The verses of the Quran was written down on many different witting materials that was available to them.

Collection and compilation of Quran at that time was not restricted to the copies of the Holy Prophet (pbuh); on the contrary a number of scribes of revelation also wrote down the verses for themselves and in this way other copies of Quran also came into being, which is mentioned in books of traditions, exegesis and history. Like the copy of Ali, copy of Ibn Masud, copy of Ubayy Ibn Kaab and the copy of Zaid.

Ibn Nadeem has introduced them as follows: Those who compiled the Quran during the lifetime of the Prophet are as follows: Ali Ibn Abi Talib (a.s.), Saad ibn Ubaid, Abul Darda, Uwaim ibn Zaid, Maaz ibn Jabal, Abu Zaid, Thabit ibn Zaid, Ubayy ibn Kaab, Ubaid ibn Muawiyah and Thabit ibn Zahhak. (Fehrist, Pg. 47.)

Thus there existed, during the time of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ a full copy of the Quran which he had arranged to be committed to writing under his personal supervision. Though it was not there as a prepared book of pages as we have today, but it was certainly there written on whatever writing materials they had at the time.

Writers began every chapter with the formula: In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful, which was revealed at the beginning of every chapter. They continued to add verses to it till a new ‘In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful’ was revealed, which was a sign that it was a new chapter. After that they transcribed new verses, except in special cases when the Messenger ﷺ of Allah ordered that such and such verse should be placed in some other chapter in a particular place.

Yaqubi writes:

Ibn Abbas says: When we saw ‘In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful’ we understood that the previous chapter was over and a new chapter was beginning [22].

 Paper of that Time

There is no doubt that the scribes of revelation inscribed the verses of Quran on things, therefore it is remarkable that we should know what type of paper existed at that time. It is learnt from Quran that during the time of the Prophet of Islam, a thing existed, which was named as Qirtas.

The Holy Quran says:

بِسۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
وَلَوۡ نَزَّلۡنَا عَلَيۡكَ كِتٰبًا فِىۡ قِرۡطَاسٍ فَلَمَسُوۡهُ بِاَيۡدِيۡهِمۡ لَقَالَ الَّذِيۡنَ كَفَرُوۡۤا اِنۡ هٰذَاۤ اِلَّا سِحۡرٌ مُّبِيۡنٌ‏ ﴿۷﴾  وَقَالُوۡا لَوۡلَاۤ اُنۡزِلَ عَلَيۡهِ مَلَكٌ‌ ؕ وَلَوۡ اَنۡزَلۡـنَا مَلَـكًا لَّـقُضِىَ الۡاَمۡرُ ثُمَّ لَا يُنۡظَرُوۡنَ‏ ﴿۸﴾

And even if We had sent down to you, [O Muhammad], a written scripture on a page and they touched it with their hands, the disbelievers would say, “This is not but obvious magic.” (Quran 6:07)

These writing materials were silk, animal skins, barks of date palms, bone, stone and certain paper types etc.

At the time of his passing away, the Prophet (pbuh) entrusted this same copy to Imam Ali (a.s.), who was himself a scribe of revelation.

Imam Ja’far Sadiq (a.s.) says:

The Messenger of Allah (S) said to Imam Ali (a.s.): O Ali, Quran is placed behind my bed and it is written on a scroll, silk and papers. So take it and do not lose it like the Jews who allowed the Taurat to be lost. (Biharul Anwar, Vol. 92, Pg. 48.)

The First Caliph of Islam after the Prophet (pbuh) passed away was his best friend and most learned Abu Bakr who was himself a Hafiz of Quran (one who memorized the entire Quran). His reign only lasted 27 months and he passed away from illness.

During this time the memorizers of the Quran where often killed in battle and it was feared that with their death, some verses would be lost as writing material can fade over time. As happened during the Battle of Yamama that a number of memorizers of Quran were killed, till Abu Bakr realized this danger and issued the command that the whole of the Quran should be compiled into a book.

With regard to this, Suyuti writes: Zaid ibn Thabit said: Abu Bakr summoned me after the Battle of Yamama while Umar ibn Khattab was also present there. He said to me: Umar came to me and said: In the Battle of Yamama, a large number of reciters and memorizers of Quran are killed; I fear that in other battles also memorizers of Quran would be killed in this way and hence the Quran will be lost. In my view you should issue orders for the compilation of Quran.

Zaid says: I asked Umar: How can I do something that the Holy Prophet ﷺ did not do? Umar replied: By God, this is a good and a necessary job, and emphasized so much on it that I was also convinced. Zaid says: Abu Bakr said to me: You are an intelligent and trustworthy young man and you were a scribe of revelation; gather the Quran accurately and diligently. I gathered the Quran from the barks of date palms, bones of quadrupeds and white slabs of stone and from the memories of those who had learnt it by heart. (Suyuti, Al-Itqan fee Uloomul Quran, Vol. 1, Pg. 76.)

Zaid ibn Thabit, as per the orders of Abu Bakr, accepted this important responsibility and became engrossed in it. He sought the help of companions of the Holy Prophet ﷺ also and said: Anyone who is in possession of a copy of Quran, or has memorized a chapter or some verses, should present it to me so that I may record it. Companions accepted his call and agreed to co-operate.

This delegation of 12 people, including famous figures such as Uthman ibn Affan, Ali ibn Abi Talib, Talha ibn Ubaydullah, Abdullah ibn Masood, Ubayy ibn Kab, Khalid ibn al-Walid, Hudhaifah and Saleem, came together in Umar’s house and collected all the materials on which verses from the Quran were written. In addition, the verses memorized by the companions were heard as well.

Zaid fixed the testimony of two just persons as the criteria for acceptance of the verses. If two just men testified that they heard them from the Holy Prophet ﷺ or witnessed that it was written in the presence of the Holy Prophet ﷺ it was accorded acceptance and recorded.

Suyuti writes:

It is narrated from Laith ibn Saad that he said: Abu Bakr was the first to have the Quran compiled and he gave this responsibility to Zaid ibn Thabit. People presented the verses of Quran to Zaid but he didn’t accept anything unless supported by the testimony of two just males.(Suyuti, Al-Itqan fee Uloomul Quran, Vol. 1, Pg. 77.)

In the same way, he writes:

Umar said: All those who had taken something of Quran from the Holy Prophet (pbuh) presented them so that it may be recorded. Companions had written the verses on paper, tablets, barks of date trees, but nothing was accepted except through the testimony of two just men. (Suyuti, Al-Itqan fee Uloomul Quran, Vol. 1, Pg. 77.)

Although it should be mentioned that Zaid ibn Thabit was capable of this appointment from every aspect. Because firstly: he had faith, piety and was well known for trustworthiness and sagacity. Secondly: He was himself a memorizer of the Holy Quran and he had recited it before the Holy Prophet ﷺ twice and was certified as correct. Thirdly, he was a usual scribe of revelation. Fourthly: He was in possession of a copy of Quran which was certified by the Prophet.

Zaid ibn Thabit, who had such an excellence and being supported by all the other memorizers, after a diligent exercise, he compiled the Quran in a single copy. The verse is the name given to each sentence of the Quran and the surah is the name given to each part of the holy book. There are 6,236 verses, 114 surahs and about 323,000 letters in the Quran.

Saeed ibn al-Aas, who was renowned for the beauty of his handwriting, wrote them down on gazelle skin. The writing used was the Arabic script of the time, which was already old and used commonly at that time in Hejaz.The companions reached a consensus that this writing, which was used by Prophet Ismail in Hejaz, is the writing of Muslims.

The copy of the Quran was recited to the companions at a general meeting. There was no objection. So, a book called “mushaf” emerged, which means written verses.

A total of 33,000 companions agreed that every letter of the Quran was in the right place before they handed it to Abu Bakar. Then this mushaf was sent to Umar ibn al-Khattab. After his death, this book passed on to Hazrat Hafsah, the daughter of Umar and a wife of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ.

The copy that stayed with the caliph was called al-Mushaf al-Imam (the head mushaf). There is no difference between the mushafs recited around the world today since they were all copied from original copies. From the new copy, some mushafs were also written on parchment and sent to different places such as Bahrain, Damascus, Basra, Kufa, Yemen and was accompanied by a qari (an expert reader and one who had memorized the Quran). There are also rumors that copies were sent to Egypt and Jazeera.

Uthman also established special schools for the correct recitation and writing of the Quran. Some of these first seven mushafs have disappeared over time. Today, in Topkapı Palace and the Museum of Turkish-Islamic Arts in Istanbul, there are mushafs from Uthman and Ali’s period. One of them was handwritten by Uthman, and the other two by Ali. While the copy in Egypt was in the Mosque of Amr ibn al-Aas, it was presented to Ottoman Sultan Selim II and brought to Topkapı Palace after the conquest of Egypt.

Some claim that this is in fact the copy from Medina and that the last survivor of the Abbasid family took it with him while escaping to Egypt from the Mongol massacre. It is said that due to a blood-like stain on it, this is the mushaf that Uthman read while he was martyred.

Other mushafs belonging to the first period of Islam are displayed in Al-Hussein Mosque in Cairo, the Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris, the British Library in London, Hast Imam Library in Tashkent and other museums.

A newly opened museum in Mecca also features verses of the Quran written on bones and stones. The verses written on rocks and stones in the seventh century in Arabia have also survived to the present day.

So, as you can see, the Quran was written in the lifetime of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ and it was was arranged by him in its correct order as we find it today. It was confirmed 24 times in the Prophets ﷺ lifetime by the Angel Gabriel to be correct and twice during the Prophets ﷺ last year before his death. The complete Quran was finally rewritten as one book during the reign of Abu Bakr within the 27 months of his reign. Since then every Quran is exactly the same and not one word has be changed.

The names of every scribe who has written down the Quran is mention and the names of every person involved in the compiling and verification of the Quran is mentioned. When we look at the Bible no names of the actual scribes or authors are mentioned, No names of the people who were involved in choosing the letters and manuscripts for the Canon are mentioned. So, how can anything be verified if there are no names? The Bible then has zero sources who testify to its authenticity.

We have seen the Bible is proven not to have originated directly from Jesus (pbuh) in this lifetime who is the source of information for the New Testament and is written by many unknown authors and who scholars say were not eyewitness. Muslims do however believe in the bible and that most of the words of Jesus (pbuh), Moses (pubh) and God are true as the Quran confirms many of it. We do not however believe in the entire bible especially when these unknown authors are the speakers and they contradict the teachings of Jesus and God’s law.

If this discussion had to be a court case where you have to prove that Jesus (pbuh) is God and I am the defendant and apposing council, the court would in no uncertain terms not allow you to use the Bible in your defence as it was not written by the sources, namely the messengers and prophets themselves, neither was it written in their lifetime, neither are any of the scribbles or the compliers of the book mentioned by name. It could have been Satan himself who has written certain letter and no one can prove otherwise. You would most definitely lose the case as the evidence against your argument as you will come to see is stacked up against you and you have very little to go on which is circumstantial at best. We will see what unfolds as we proceed.

The biggest challenge Christians face is that they cannot read and understand the original text and you are greatly dependent on human translators who are not perfect to properly translate the verses and you have to hope and pray that they are not coerced by the church and is not biased in any way. It is one thing to translate the text for purposes of understanding but it is an entirely different thing when you say the translations is the word of God. If these translations were so accurate then there will be no reason to have different versions of the bible. There will also be no reason to take out words as we find the case to be with the Revised Standard Version and the New Revised Standard Version and the case with the Old King James Version and the New King James Version. Some changes will become apparent in my proof below. If these translators where moved by the Holy Spirit as Christians always say, then there should be no errors and no need for changes.

Now, on the same bases when the early church compiled the Bible into one book, how do we know that they chose the correct letters and manuscripts when there were some 24 000 manuscripts? Your entire faith rest in the hands of people who never met Jesus (pubh) and made decisions on his teachings 400 years later. You can already see that the Canon that they decided on in choosing what belongs in the bible and what does not belong is flawed. According to Dr. Roger Barrier,the Canon states:

  1. The books considered authoritative were either written by an apostle or by one close to an apostle
  2. The books considered as Holy Scripture were consistent with both the Old Testament and with the teachings of the Apostles.
  3. The books included in the Bible were the ones which experienced widespread use in the churches.
  4. Persecution quickly determined which books were more likely God-breathed than others. Some books were more easily surrendered to persecuting soldiers—others were worth dying for.

1.Clearly no one knows who wrote most of the books as proven. 2. The New Testament Books are definitely not consistent with the Old Testament as there is no Trinity in the Old Testament, The New Testament defies the 1st Commandment, the old testament does not teach that Jesus (pbuh) that salvation only lies with Jesus (pbuh), it teaches that everyone will pay for their sins.

You can see that the books chosen definitely do not comply with the Canon

Another point that is important to raise is: which is the original bible when there are apparently 150 English versions. Remember that there is a huge difference between translations and a version. A version in the proper sense means another that is different from the first, therefore you get version 1 and version 2 or Old version and New version with changes. A translation is simply the translator’s opinion of what he reads and therefor there can be many translations as everyone reads and understand things differently. Then you have the protestant Bible with 66 books and the Catholic bible with 73 books. Which one is the real book and how do you prove it? So when you refer to the bible which Bible are you referring to and is it the original Bible in the sense that it is the most authentic and has never been changed in any way, word and structure?

Qur’an or Quran

Qur’an  – meaning “The Recitation or Continuous Recitation”.

Allah revealed the Quran to all of mandkind through the prophet Mohammed ﷺ as a mercy from Allah. The Quran was revealved over a period of 23 years in the Arabic Language and is the litteral word of Allah.

بِسۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
تَنۡزِيۡلُ الۡكِتٰبِ مِنَ اللّٰهِ الۡعَزِيۡزِ الۡحَكِيۡمِ‏ ﴿۱﴾

The revelation of the Qur’an is from Allah, the Exalted in Might, the Wise. (Quran:39:1)

Allah made the Quran the book of Guidance for all of mandkind as well as book of miracles, so that man has no excuse to reject it but accept it willingly, believing the same as the words of Allah.

بِسۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
اَفَلَا يَتَدَبَّرُوۡنَ الۡقُرۡاٰنَ‌ؕ وَلَوۡ كَانَ مِنۡ عِنۡدِ غَيۡرِ اللّٰهِ لَوَجَدُوۡا فِيۡهِ اخۡتِلَافًا كَثِيۡرًا‏ ﴿۸۲﴾ 

“Do they not reflect upon the Quran? If it had been from (any) other than Allah, they would have found within it much contradiction” (Quran 4:82)

 Further confirmation of the revelation of the Quran to the prophet Mohammed ﷺ is made in surah Ash-Shu’ara in the verses 192 – 194.

بِسۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
وَقِيۡلَ لَهُمۡ اَيۡنَمَا كُنۡتُمۡ تَعۡبُدُوۡنَۙ‏ ﴿۹۲﴾

“And indeed, the Qur’an is the revelation of the Lord of the worlds.”

بِسۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
مِنۡ دُوۡنِ اللّٰهِؕ هَلۡ يَنۡصُرُوۡنَكُمۡ اَوۡ يَنۡتَصِرُوۡنَؕ‏ ﴿۹۳﴾

“The Trustworthy Spirit has brought it down”

بِسۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
 فَكُبۡكِبُوۡا فِيۡهَا هُمۡ وَالۡغَاوٗنَۙ‏ ﴿۹۴﴾

“Upon your heart, [O Muhammad] – that you may be of the warners –“

Prophet Muhammad ﷺ was 40 years old as mentioned when the first verse of Quran was revealed to Him. The revelation started in the Holy month of Ramadan.

The Quran was revealed in parts, verse by verse, to the Holy Prophet over a period of 23 years.

The period of revelation of Quran can be divided in to 2 main parts which are Prophet Muhammad ﷺ’s life in Makkah which is 13 years and after His ﷺ migration to Madinah which is 10 years.

There are 114 Surahs in the Holy Quran. Each Surah follows a theme and gives a specific message about the fundamentals of faith and practicing of belief.

The number of Surahs revealed in Makkah is 86, while 28 Surahs were revealed in Madinah.

To facilitate the recital of Quran, it has been divided in to 30 equal parts called the Juz or Siparah.

Angel Jibril (Gabriel) (AS) used to bring the message of Allah to the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ that was further shared by the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ with His companions.

THE REVELATION OF THE QURAN

According to Allah’s statements in His Book, there were two distinct revelations of the Quran which took place. It is important that these two revelations be understood in order to clear up the apparent contradictions in the various terms used in the Quran and Sunnah to describe the Quran’s revelation. On one hand, the Quran is referred to as having been revealed in its totality in Ramadan or on Laylatul-Qadr, the Night of Decree; while on the other hand, it is referred to as having been continuously revealed in segments up until just before the death of the Prophet ﷺ.

The First Revelation

Allah caused the Quran to descend from the Protected Tablet (al-Lawh al-Mahfuth) on which it was written to the lowest heaven. In this revelation, all of the Quran was sent down at one time to a station in the lowest heaven referred to as “Bayt al-‘Izzah” (The House of Honor or Power). The blessed night on which this descent took place is called “Laylatul-Qadr” (The Night of Decree), one of the odd-numbered nights in the last ten days of the month of Ramadan. Allah referred to this initial revelation as follows:

بِسۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
حٰمٓ ‌ ۛ‌ۚ‏ ﴿۱﴾  وَالۡكِتٰبِ الۡمُبِيۡنِ ۛ‌ۙ‏ ﴿۲﴾  اِنَّاۤ اَنۡزَلۡنٰهُ فِىۡ لَيۡلَةٍ مُّبٰـرَكَةٍ‌ اِنَّا كُنَّا مُنۡذِرِيۡنَ‏ ﴿۳﴾ 

“Haa Meem. By the Clear Book, Indeed, We sent it down during a blessed night. Indeed, We were to warn [mankind].“(Quran 44:1-3)

بِسۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
اِنَّاۤ اَنۡزَلۡنٰهُ فِىۡ لَيۡلَةِ الۡقَدۡ ۖ ۚ‏ ﴿۱﴾

“Indeed, We revealed the Quran on the Night of Decree.”(Quran 97:1)

بِسۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
شَهۡرُ رَمَضَانَ الَّذِىۡٓ اُنۡزِلَ فِيۡهِ الۡقُرۡاٰنُ هُدًى لِّلنَّاسِ وَ بَيِّنٰتٍ مِّنَ الۡهُدٰى وَالۡفُرۡقَانِۚ فَمَنۡ شَهِدَ مِنۡكُمُ الشَّهۡرَ فَلۡيَـصُمۡهُ ؕ

The month of Ramadhan [is that] in which was revealed the Qur’an, a guidance for the people and clear proofs of guidance and criterion.…”(Quran 2:185)

These verses have to refer to the initial revelation because it is a known fact that the whole Quran was not revealed to Prophet Muhammad ﷺ on a single night in Ramadan. Ibn ‘Abbas stated that the Quran was first separated from its station in the upper heavens and placed in Bayt al-‘Izzah in the lowest heaven. One version states that this took place on the Night of Decree in Ramadan. Had it been Allah’s wish, the Quran could then have been revealed as a whole to the Prophet ﷺ in a single revelation.

This was the method by which all of the earlier books of revelation were sent down. But, Allah chose to divide the revelation into two parts. The first revelation within the heavens represented an announcement to the inhabitants of the heavens that the final book of revelation was being sent down upon the last of the prophets.

From the lowest heaven sections of the Quran were then taken down by the angel Jibril to Prophet Muhammad ﷺ. This process of revelation continued over the twenty-three years of his prophethood. This revelation began with the first five verses of Surah al-‘Alaq. Thes e verses were revealed to the Prophet ﷺ while he was on a spiritual retreat in the cave of Hira’ near Makkah. However, the first complete Surah to be revealed was Surah al-Fatihah. The revelation of this portion of Quran marked the beginning of the final phase of prophethood. The last Surah to be revealed was Surah an-Nasr. This Surah was brought down in Mina during the Farewell Hajj of the Prophet ﷺ, which took place at the end of the tenth year after the Hijrah. According to Ibn ‘Abbas, the last verse to be revealed was verse 281 in Surah al-Baqarah, the last of a series of verses dealing with interest. Allah has referred to the second revelation in the following way:

بِسۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
وَقُرۡاٰنًا فَرَقۡنٰهُ لِتَقۡرَاَهٗ عَلَى النَّاسِ عَلٰى مُكۡثٍ وَّنَزَّلۡنٰهُ تَنۡزِيۡلًا‏ ﴿۱۰۶﴾

“And (it is) a Quran which I have divided into parts in order that you (Muhammad) may recite it to the people gradually, and I have revealed it by successive revelation.” (Quran 17:106)

The term “Quran” is mentioned in a number of places throughout the book in reference to itself. For example:

بِسۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
اِنَّ هٰذَا الۡقُرۡاٰنَ يَهۡدِىۡ لِلَّتِىۡ هِىَ اَقۡوَمُ وَ يُبَشِّرُ الۡمُؤۡمِنِيۡنَ الَّذِيۡنَ يَعۡمَلُوۡنَ الصّٰلِحٰتِ اَنَّ لَهُمۡ اَجۡرًا كَبِيۡرًا ۙ‏ ﴿۹﴾ 

Indeed, this Qur’an guides to that which is most suitable and gives good tidings to the believers who do righteous deeds that they will have a great reward.” (Quran 17:9)

The name Quran is used to refer to both the Quran as a whole, as in the previously quoted verse; as well as to each verse or group of verses, as in the following verse:

بِسۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
وَاِذَا قُرِئَ الۡقُرۡاٰنُ فَاسۡتَمِعُوۡا لَهٗ وَاَنۡصِتُوۡا لَعَلَّكُمۡ تُرۡحَمُوۡنَ‏ ﴿۲۰۴﴾ 

“And if the Quran is recited, you should listen to it and be silent, that you may receive mercy.”(Quran 7:204)

The Book has also been referred to by other names; for example, the Furqan (The Distinction):

سۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
تَبٰـرَكَ الَّذِىۡ نَزَّلَ الۡـفُرۡقَانَ عَلٰى عَبۡدِهٖ لِيَكُوۡنَ لِلۡعٰلَمِيۡنَ نَذِيۡرَا ۙ‏ ﴿۱﴾

“Blessed is He who revealed the Furqan to His slave in order that he may be a warner to all the worlds.”(Quran 25:1)

and the Dhikr, (The Reminder):

سۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
اِنَّا نَحۡنُ نَزَّلۡنَا الذِّكۡرَ وَاِنَّا لَهٗ لَحٰـفِظُوۡنَ‏ ﴿۹﴾

Indeed, it is We who sent down the Qur’an and indeed, We will be its guardian.” (Quran 15:9)

 The Quran could be defined as Allah’s words which were revealed in Arabic in a rhythmical form to Prophet Muhammad ﷺ. Its recitation is used in acts of worship and its smallest chapter (Surah) is of a miraculous nature.

The Main Theme of the Quran

Not only is the Quran unique among books today in its origin and purity, but it is also unique in the way it presents its subject matter.

It is not a book in the usual sense of the word wherein there is an introduction, explanation of the subject, followed by a conclusion. Neither is it restricted to only a presentation of historical events, problems of philosophy, facts of science or social laws, though all may be found woven together in it without any apparent connection and links. Subjects are introduced without background information, historical events are not presented in chronological order, new topics sometimes crop up in the middle of another for no apparent reason, and the speaker and those spoken to change direction without the slightest forewarning.

The reader who is unaware of the Quran’s uniqueness is often puzzled when he finds it contrary to his understanding of a book in general and a “religious” book in particular. Hence, the Quran may seem disorganized and haphazard to him. However, to those who understand its subject matter, aim and its central theme, the Quran is exactly the opposite. The subject matter of the Quran is essentially man: man in relation to his Lord and Creator, Allah; man in relation to himself; and man in relation to the rest of creation. The aim and object of the revelations is to invite man to the right way of dealing with his Lord, with himself, and with creation. Hence, the main theme that runs throughout the Quran is that God alone deserves worship and, thus, man should submit to God’s laws in his personal life and in his relationships with creation in general. Or, in other words, the main theme is a call to the belief in Allah and the doing of righteous deeds as defined by Allah.

If the reader keeps these basic facts in mind, he will find that, from beginning to end, the Quran’s topics are all closely connected to its main theme and that the whole book is a well-reasoned and cohesive argument for its theme. The Quran keeps the same object in view, whether it is describing the creation of man and the universe or events from human history. Since the aim of the Quran is to guide man, it states or discusses things only to the extent relevant to this aim and leaves out unnecessary and irrelevant details. It also repeats its main theme over and over again in the presentation of each new topic.

Some of the Magnificent Characteristics of the Quran

 Allah has described the Noble Quran with a number of magnificent characteristics of which Ibn Qudamah mentioned eight in points 27 – 30 of Lum’atul-I’tiqad.

They are as follows:

  1. That it is clear (mubin) and makes clear the laws and reports which it contains.
  2. That it is Allah’s firm rope (Hablullah), that is, it is the solid contract which Allah made a reason for reaching Himself and the attainment of success by His Grace.
  3. That it consists of distinct chapters (muhkamat), each distinct from the other, perfected and preserved from any flaws or contradictions.
  4. That it consists of clear verses (ayat bayyinat) which are clear and obvious signs indicating Allah’s unique unity, the perfection of His attributes, and the goodness of His laws.
  5. That it contains clear and obscure verses (ayat muhkamat wa mutashabihat); the clear being that whose meaning is clear and the obscure being those whose meaning is hidden. And this does not contradict point number three above because the clarity there refers to perfection and protection from flaws and contradiction, while here it refers to clarity of meaning. If the obscure is referred back to the clear, all of it will become clear.
  6. That it is the truth (haqq) that cannot be affected by falsehood from any direction.
  7. That it is free from its description by the disbelievers as being poetry, magic or human speech.
  8. That it is a miracle that no one can imitate even with the help of others.

The Miracals and Uniqueness of the Quran

Throughout the ages God sent messengers and prophets to convey his message. Many of the messengers and prophets was given certain powers to prove to the people that they were sent by God and that the messages was from God. In the Case of Moses God gave Moses power in his staff which turned into a snake that ate the other snakes, struck the rock and 12 springs gushed forth and parted the red sea. God gave King Solomon the power to speak to animals and control over the animals and the elements. God gave Jesus Christ the power to heal the sick, raise a man from the dead, heal the sick, multiply food etc. These were clear signs from God.

In the case of the Prophet Mohammed ﷺ whom God sent as a mercy to all of mankind. The prophet Mohammed needed no miracles to convince people as he was a miracle himself. People saw within him that which they have not seen in no other man. His kindness, honesty commitment and dedication to his course and his extreme love for his creator led people to believe in his message. The prophet Mohammed won people’s hearts with his love he showed everyone.

Today however we only have his good example in the Sunnah and the Quran which he left behind.

Since his message is everlasting and the miracle given to him by God is also everlasting and examineable by us all for all times.

Al Quran is the miracle of miracles for all times. It has proved to be a miracle 1 400 years ago and will continue to do so today and forever.

Athiast always pose the question: “How can you prove that God Exist” and Christains always pose the question: “How can you prove that the Quran is the word of God”

If God exist then only God will know the secretes of the Universe and all of creation as God claims to be the creator. Similarly if the Quran is God’s words then it should contain facts to show that only God knows things that man could not have known.

The Quran is truly unique and contains signs and miracles that proves that it is not the words of any man but the words of Allah. At the time the Quran was revealed and for centuries after, many of the verses of the Quran did not make sense until the right time when science had advance enough revealing the verses true meaning and scientist are now seeing that the Quran is a miracle and can only be from Allah. These miracles also proves that the Quran could have never been copied from anyone else or any other book.

The Quran continuously asks humankind to reason and to think. No other book claim this? The Quran mentions hundreds of scientific facts that were unknown 1400 years ago, yet it is not a book of science, but a book of “signs”.

These signs invite humankind to realise the purpose of his existence and to live in harmony. It also contains the same message of the Oneness of God as preached by all prophets (pbuh)

 Here are some of the Miracles as they appear on the Holy Quran;

THE UNIVERSE IS EXPANDING

Hubble’s Law

For thousands of years, astronomers wrestled with basic questions concerning the universe.  Until the early 1920’s, it was believed that the universe had always been in existence; also, that the size of the universe was fixed and not changing.  However, in 1912, the American astronomer, Vesto Slipher, made a discovery that would soon change astronomers’ beliefs about the universe.  Slipher, noticed that the galaxies were moving away from earth at huge velocities.  These observations provided the first evidence supporting the expanding-universe theory.

In 1916, Albert Einstein formulated his General Theory of Relativity that indicated that the universe must be either expanding or contracting.  Confirmation of the expanding-universe theory finally came in 1929 in the hands of the well known American astronomer Edwin Hubble.

By observing redshifts in the light wavelengths emitted by galaxies, Hubble found that galaxies were not fixed in their position; instead, they were actually moving away from us with speeds proportional to their distance from earth (Hubble’s Law).  The only explanation for this observation was that the universe had to be expanding.  Hubble’s discovery is regarded as one of the greatest in the history of astronomy.  In 1929, he published the velocity-time relation which is the basis of modern cosmology.  In the years to come, with further observations, the expanding-universe theory was accepted by scientists and astronomers alike.

Yet, astonishingly well before telescopes were even invented and well before Hubble published his Law, Prophet Muhammad used to recite a verse of the Quran to his companions that ultimately stated that the universe is expanding.

سۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
وَ السَّمَآءَ بَنَيۡنٰهَا بِاَيۡٮدٍ وَّاِنَّا لَمُوۡسِعُوۡنَ‏ ﴿۴۷﴾

“And the heaven We created with might, and indeed We are (its) expander.” (Quran 51:47)

At the time of the revelation of the Quran, the word “space” was not known, and people used the word “heaven” to refer to what lies above the Earth.  In the above verse, the word “heaven” is referring to space and the known universe.  The verse points out that space, and thus the universe, happens to be expanding, just as Hubble’s Law states.

That the Quran mentioned such a fact centuries before the invention of the first telescope, at a time when there was primitive knowledge in science, is considered remarkable.  This is more so considering that, like many people in his time, Prophet Muhammad happened to be illiterate and simply could not have been aware of such facts by himself.  Could it be that he had truly received divine revelation from the Creator and Originator of the universe?

THE BIG BANK THEORY

Soon after Hubble published his theory, he went on to discover that not only were galaxies moving away from the Earth, but were also moving away from one another.  This meant that the universe happened to be expanding in every direction, in the same way a balloon expands when filled with air.  Hubble’s new findings placed the foundations for the Big Bang theory.

The Big Bang theory states that around 12-15 billion years ago the universe came into existence from one single extremely hot and dense point, and that something triggered the explosion of this point that brought about the beginning of the universe.  The universe, since then, has been expanding from this single point.  

Later, in 1965, radio astronomers Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson made a Noble Prize winning discovery that confirmed the Big Bang theory.  Prior to their discovery, the theory implied that if the single point from which the universe came into existence was initially extremely hot, then remnants of this heat should be found.  This remnant heat is exactly what Penzias and Wilson found.  In 1965, Penzias and Wilson discovered a 2.725 degree Kelvin Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMB) that spreads through the universe.  Thus, it was understood that the radiation found was a remnant of the initial stages of the Big Bang.  Presently, the Big Bang theory is accepted by the vast majority of scientists and astronomers.

This is mentioned in the Quran:

سۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
بَدِيۡعُ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَالۡاَرۡضِ‌ؕ اَنّٰى يَكُوۡنُ لَهٗ وَلَدٌ وَّلَمۡ تَكُنۡ لَّهٗ صَاحِبَةٌ‌ ؕ وَخَلَقَ كُلَّ شَىۡءٍ‌ ۚ وَهُوَ بِكُلِّ شَىۡءٍ عَلِيۡمٌ‏ ﴿۱۰۱﴾

“He (God) is the Originator of the heavens and the earth…” (Quran 6:101)

سۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
اَوَلَيۡسَ الَّذِىۡ خَلَقَ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَالۡاَرۡضَ بِقٰدِرٍ عَلٰٓى اَنۡ يَّخۡلُقَ مِثۡلَهُمۡؔؕ بَلٰی وَهُوَ الۡخَـلّٰقُ الۡعَلِيۡمُ‏ ﴿۸۱﴾  اِنَّمَاۤ اَمۡرُهٗۤ اِذَاۤ اَرَادَ شَیْـًٔـا اَنۡ يَّقُوۡلَ لَهٗ كُنۡ فَيَكُوۡنُ‏ ﴿۸۲﴾ 

“Is not He who created the heavens and the earth Able to create the likes of them?  Yes; and He is the Knowing Creator. His command is only when He intends a thing that He says to it, ‘Be,’ and it is.” (Quran 36:81-82)

The above verses prove that the universe had a beginning, that God was behind its creation, and all that God needs to do inorder to create is to say “Be,” and it is. God’s instruction “Be” is what triggered off the explosion that brought about the beginning of the universe?

The Quran also mentions:

سۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
اَوَلَمۡ يَرَ الَّذِيۡنَ كَفَرُوۡۤا اَنَّ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَالۡاَرۡضَ كَانَـتَا رَتۡقًا فَفَتَقۡنٰهُمَا‌ ؕ وَجَعَلۡنَا مِنَ الۡمَآءِ كُلَّ شَىۡءٍ حَىٍّ‌ ؕ اَفَلَا يُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ‏ ﴿۳۰﴾

“Have those who disbelieved not considered that the heavens and the earth were a joined entity, then We separated them, and made from water every living thing?  Then will they not believe?” (Quran 21:30)

Muslim scholars who have explained the previous verse mention that the heavens and earth were once one, and then God caused them to separate and form into the seven heavens and Earth.  Yet, due to the limitations of science and technology at the time of the revelation of the Quran (and for centuries to follow), no scholar was able to give much detail about how exactly the heavens and earth were created.  What the scholars could explain was the precise meaning of each word in Arabic in the verse, as well as the overall meaning of the verse.

In the previous verse, the Arabic words ratq and fataq are used.  The word ratq can be translated into “entity” “sewn to” “joined together” or “closed up”.  The meaning of these translations all circulate around something that is mixed and that has a separate and distinct existence.  The verb fataq is translated into “We unstitched” “We clove them asunder” “We separated” or “We have opened them”.  These meanings imply that something comes into being by an action of splitting or tearing apart.  The sprouting of a seed from the soil is a good example of a similar illustration of the meaning of the verb fataq.

With the introduction of the Big Bang theory, it soon became clear to Muslim scholars that the details mentioned with regards to the theory go identically hand in hand with the description of the creation of the universe in verse 30 of chapter 21 of the Quran.  The theory states that all the matter in the universe came into existence from one single extremely hot and dense point; that exploded and brought about the beginning of the universe, matches what is mentioned in the verse that the heaven and Earth (thus the universe) where once joined together, and  then split apart.  Once again, the only possible explanation is that Prophet Muhammad had truly received divine revelation from God, The Creator and Originator of the universe.

 

THE EARTH IS A ROTATING SPERE

The Quran 39:5, says that when the night and the day overlap, they make a ball (sphere):

سۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
خَلَقَ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَالۡاَرۡضَ بِالۡحَقِّ‌ ۚ يُكَوِّرُ الَّيۡلَ عَلَى النَّهَارِ وَيُكَوِّرُ النَّهَارَ عَلَى الَّيۡلِ وَسَخَّرَ الشَّمۡسَ وَالۡقَمَرَ‌ؕ كُلٌّ يَّجۡرِىۡ لِاَجَلٍ مُّسَمًّى‌ؕ اَلَا هُوَ الۡعَزِيۡزُ الۡغَفَّارُ‏ ﴿۵﴾

Allah] Created the heavens and the Earth in truth. He overlaps [Yukawer in Arabic يُكَوِّرُthe night over the day and overlaps [Yukawer يُكَوِّرُ] the day over the night, and enslaved the sun and the moon. ALL MOVE (Kullon Yajree كل يجري) to a prerecorded destiny. Is He not the Exalted, the Forgiver?

The Arabic word “Kura كرة” means ball; the Quran used its verb “Yukawer يُكَوِّرُ” meaning to make into a ball. The Quran says that the overlapping of the night and the day makes a ball (sphere).

ALL MOVE (Kullon Yajree كل يجري)” here the Quran is referring to ALL MOVING, not only the sun and moon but also Earth. In Arabic grammar there is difference between the singular (one), binary (two) and plural (three or more). The reference to binary is “Kulahuma Yajreean كلاهما يجريان” however the Quran said “Kullon yajree كل يجري” referring to the plural (three or more). Since the sun and moon are just two but the Quran refers to three or more then according to the Quran all the three move: sun, moon and Earth.

How could an illiterate man who lived 1400 years ago have known that all move sun, moon and Earth?

The Quran 55:33, says that Earth has a diameter (diameter is simply twice the radius).

سۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
يٰمَعۡشَرَ الۡجِنِّ وَالۡاِنۡسِ اِنِ اسۡتَطَعۡتُمۡ اَنۡ تَنۡفُذُوۡا مِنۡ اَقۡطَارِ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَالۡاَرۡضِ فَانْفُذُوۡا‌ؕ لَا تَنۡفُذُوۡنَ اِلَّا بِسُلۡطٰنٍ‌ۚ‏ ﴿۳۳﴾

O company of Jinn and man, escape the diameters (اقطار) of the Heavens and the Earth if you can, You won’t escape without authority.

Diameter in Arabic is Kutr قطر.  Its plural is Aktar اقطار. Radii and diameters are properties of circles or spheres only. This conforms with the previous verse, to make into a ball [Yukawer يُكَوِّرُ].

ATMOSPHERIC PRESURE

As altitude increases atmospheric pressure and oxygen concentration in the atmosphere decreases. A point is reached where humans cannot breath anymore.

Death Zone

The death zone, in mountaineering, refers to altitudes above a certain point where the amount of oxygen is insufficient to sustain human life for an extended time span. This point is generally tagged as 8,000 m (26,000 ft, less than 356 millibars of atmospheric pressure).

Wikipedia, Effects of high altitude on humans, 2019

Humans cannot breathe at high altitude. Above the death zone you have to bring your own oxygen. This was only known recently, however this was portrayed in the Quran 1400 years before it was discovered. The Quran says that as we ascend to the sky it becomes more difficult for us to breathe:

سۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
فَمَنۡ يُّرِدِ اللّٰهُ اَنۡ يَّهۡدِيَهٗ يَشۡرَحۡ صَدۡرَهٗ لِلۡاِسۡلَامِ‌ۚ وَمَنۡ يُّرِدۡ اَنۡ يُّضِلَّهٗ يَجۡعَلۡ صَدۡرَهٗ ضَيِّقًا حَرَجًا كَاَنَّمَا يَصَّعَّدُ فِى السَّمَآءِ‌ؕ كَذٰلِكَ يَجۡعَلُ اللّٰهُ الرِّجۡسَ عَلَى الَّذِيۡنَ لَا يُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ‏ ﴿۱۲۵﴾

Those whom Allah wants to guide, He opens their chests to Islam; And those whom He wants to leave astray, He makes their chests tight and constricted, as if they are ascending to the sky: Such is the penalty of Allah on those who refuse to believe. (Quran 6:125)

THE DEVELOPMENT OF A HUMAN EMBRYO

In the Holy Quran, Allah speaks about the stages of man’s embryonic development, 1,400 years before modern day scientists ‘discovered’ important information on creation of man and his development:

سۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
وَلَقَدۡ خَلَقۡنَا الۡاِنۡسَانَ مِنۡ سُلٰلَةٍ مِّنۡ طِيۡنٍ‌ ۚ‏ ﴿۱۲﴾  ثُمَّ جَعَلۡنٰهُ نُطۡفَةً فِىۡ قَرَارٍ مَّكِيۡنٍ‏ ﴿۱۳﴾  ثُمَّ خَلَقۡنَا النُّطۡفَةَ عَلَقَةً فَخَلَقۡنَا الۡعَلَقَةَ مُضۡغَةً فَخَلَقۡنَا الۡمُضۡغَةَ عِظٰمًا فَكَسَوۡنَا الۡعِظٰمَ لَحۡمًا ثُمَّ اَنۡشَاۡنٰهُ خَلۡقًا اٰخَرَ‌ ؕ فَتَبٰـرَكَ اللّٰهُ اَحۡسَنُ الۡخٰلِقِيۡنَ ؕ‏ ﴿۱۴﴾ 

“We created man from an extract of clay. Then We made him as a drop in a place of settlement, firmly fixed. Then We made the drop into an alaqah (leech, suspended thing, and blood clot), then We made the alaqah into a mudghah (chewed-like substance)….” (Quran 23:12-14)

Literally, the Arabic word alaqah has three meanings:

(1) leech,

(2) suspended thing, and

(3) blood clot.

In comparing a leech to an embryo in the alaqah stage, we find similarity between the two as we can see in figure 1.  Also, the embryo at this stage obtains nourishment from the blood of the mother, similar to the leech, which feeds on the blood of others. The second meaning of the word alaqah is “suspended thing.”  This is what we can see in figures 2 and 3, the suspension of the embryo, during the alaqah stage, in the womb of the mother.

Figure 1

Figure 1: Drawings illustrating the similarities in appearance between a leech and a human embryo at the alaqah stage. (Leech drawing from Human Development as Described in the Quran and Sunnah, Moore and others, p. 37, modified from Integrated Principles of Zoology, Hickman and others.  Embryo drawing from The Developing Human, Moore and Persaud, 5th ed., p. 73.)

Figure 2

Figure 2: We can see in this diagram the suspension of an embryo during the alaqah stage in the womb (uterus) of the mother. (The Developing Human, Moore and Persaud, 5th ed., p. 66.)  (Click on the image to enlarge it.)

Figure 3

Figure 3: In this photomicrograph, we can see the suspension of an embryo (marked B) during the alaqah stage (about 15 days old) in the womb of the mother.  The actual size of the embryo is about 0.6 mm. (The Developing Human, Moore, 3rd ed., p. 66, from Histology, Leeson and Leeson.)

The third meaning of the word alaqah is “blood clot.”  We find that the external appearance of the embryo and its sacs during the alaqah stage is similar to that of a blood clot. This is due to the presence of relatively large amounts of blood present in the embryo during this stage (see figure 4). Also during this stage, the blood in the embryo does not circulate until the end of the third week. Thus, the embryo at this stage is like a clot of blood. So the three meanings of the word alaqah correspond accurately to the descriptions of the embryo at the alaqah stage.

Figure 4

Figure 4: Diagram of the primitive cardiovascular system in an embryo during the alaqah stage.  The external appearance of the embryo and its sacs is similar to that of a blood clot, due to the presence of relatively large amounts of blood present in the embryo. (The Developing Human, Moore, 5th ed., p. 65.)  (Click on the image to enlarge it.)

The next stage mentioned in the verse is the mudghah stage.  The Arabic word mudghah means “chewed substance.”  If one were to take a piece of gum and chew it in his or her mouth and then compare it with an embryo at the mudghah stage, we would conclude that the embryo at the mudghah stage acquires the appearance of a chewed substance.  This is because of the somites at the back of the embryo that “somewhat resemble teethmarks in a chewed substance.” (see figures 5 and 6).

Figure 5

Figure 5: Photograph of an embryo at the mudghah stage (28 days old).  The embryo at this stage acquires the appearance of a chewed substance, because the somites at the back of the embryo somewhat resemble teeth marks in a chewed substance.  The actual size of the embryo is 4 mm. (The Developing Human, Moore and Persaud, 5th ed., p. 82, from Professor Hideo Nishimura, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.)

Figure 6

Figure 6: When comparing the appearance of an embryo at the mudghah stage with a piece of gum that has been chewed, we find similarity between the two.
A) Drawing of an embryo at the mudghah stage.  We can see here the somites at the back of the embryo that look like teeth marks. (The Developing Human, Moore and Persaud, 5th ed., p. 79.)
B) Photograph of a piece of gum that has been chewed.
(Click on the image to enlarge it.)

How could the prophet Muhammad ﷺ have possibly known all this 1400 years ago, when scientists have only recently discovered this using advanced equipment and powerful microscopes which did not exist at that time?  Hamm and Leeuwenhoek were the first scientists to observe human sperm cells (spermatozoa) using an improved microscope in 1677 (more than 1000 years after the prophet Muhammad ﷺ).  They mistakenly thought that the sperm cell contained a miniature preformed human being that grew when it was deposited in the female genital tract.

Professor Emeritus Keith L. Moore is one of the world’s most prominent scientists in the fields of anatomy and embryology and is the author of the book entitled The Developing Human, which has been translated into eight languages.  This book is a scientific reference work and was chosen by a special committee in the United States as the best book authored by one person.  Dr. Keith Moore is Professor Emeritus of Anatomy and Cell Biology at the University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.  There, he was Associate Dean of Basic Sciences at the Faculty of Medicine and for 8 years was the Chairman of the Department of Anatomy.  In 1984, he received the most distinguished award presented in the field of anatomy in Canada, the J.C.B. Grant Award from the Canadian Association of Anatomists.  He has directed many international associations, such as the Canadian and American Association of Anatomists and the Council of the Union of Biological Sciences.

In 1981, during the Seventh Medical Conference in Dammam, Saudi Arabia, Professor Moore said: “It has been a great pleasure for me to help clarify statements in the Quran about human development.  It is clear to me that these statements must have come to Muhammad from God, because almost all of this knowledge was not discovered until many centuries later. This proves to me that Muhammad must have been a messenger of God.”

Consequently, Professor Moore was asked the following question: “Does this mean that you believe that the Quran is the word of God?”  He replied: “I find no difficulty in accepting this.”

During one conference, Professor Moore stated: “….Because the staging of human embryos is complex, owing to the continuous process of change during development, it is proposed that a new system of classification could be developed using the terms mentioned in the Quran and Sunnah (what Muhammad ﷺ said, did, or approved of).  The proposed system is simple, comprehensive, and conforms with present embryological knowledge. The intensive studies of the Quran and hadeeth (reliably transmitted reports by the Prophet Muhammad’s ﷺ companions of what he said, did, or approved of) in the last four years have revealed a system for classifying human embryos that is amazing since it was recorded in the seventh century A.D.  Although Aristotle, the founder of the science of embryology, realized that chick embryos developed in stages from his studies of hen’s eggs in the fourth century B.C., he did not give any details about these stages.  As far as it is known from the history of embryology, little was known about the staging and classification of human embryos until the twentieth century.  For this reason, the descriptions of the human embryo in the Quran cannot be based on scientific knowledge in the seventh century.  The only reasonable conclusion is: these descriptions were revealed to Muhammad from God.  He could not have known such details because he was an illiterate man with absolutely no scientific training.”

Scientist Comments About the Miracles in the Quran

The following are some comments of scientists on the scientific miracles in the Holy Quran. The comments below have been taken from the video links below;

Dr. T. V. N. Persaud is Professor of Anatomy, Professor of Pediatrics and Child Health, and Professor of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences at the University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.  There, he was the Chairman of the Department of Anatomy for 16 years.  He is well-known in his field.  He is the author or editor of 22 textbooks and has published over 181 scientific papers.  In 1991, he received the most distinguished award presented in the field of anatomy in Canada, the J.C.B. Grant Award from the Canadian Association of Anatomists.  When he was asked about the scientific miracles in the Quran which he has researched, he stated the following:

“The way it was explained to me is that Muhammad was a very ordinary man.  He could not read, didn’t know [how] to write. In fact, he was an illiterate.  And we’re talking about twelve [actually about fourteen] hundred years ago.  You have someone illiterate making profound pronouncements and statements and that are amazingly accurate about scientific nature.  And I personally can’t see how this could be a mere chance.  There are too many accuracies and, like Dr. Moore, I have no difficulty in my mind that this is a divine inspiration or revelation which led him to these statements.” Professor Persaud has included some Quranic verses and sayings of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ in some of his books.  He has also presented these verses and sayings of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ at several conferences.

Dr. Joe Leigh Simpson is the Chairman of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and Professor of Molecular and Human Genetics at the Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.  Formerly, he was Professor of Ob-Gyn and the Chairman of the Department of Ob-Gyn at the University of Tennessee, Memphis, Tennessee, USA.  He was also the President of the American Fertility Society.  He has received many awards, including the Association of Professors of Obstetrics and Gynecology Public Recognition Award in 1992.  Professor Simpson studied the following two sayings of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ:

(In every one of you, all components of your creation are collected together in your mother’s womb by forty days…)

(If forty-two nights have passed over the embryo, God sends an angel to it, who shapes it and creates its hearing, vision, skin, flesh, and bones….)

He studied these two sayings of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ extensively, noting that the first forty days constitute a clearly distinguishable stage of embryo-genesis.  He was particularly impressed by the absolute precision and accuracy of those sayings of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ.  Then, during one conference, he gave the following opinion:

“So that the two hadeeths (the sayings of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ) that have been noted provide us with a specific time table for the main embryological development before forty days.  Again, the point has been made, I think, repeatedly by other speakers this morning: these hadeeths could not have been obtained on the basis of the scientific knowledge that was available [at] the time of their writing . . . . It follows, I think, that not only there is no conflict between genetics and religion but, in fact, religion can guide science by adding revelation to some of the traditional scientific approaches, that there exist statements in the Quran shown centuries later to be valid, which support knowledge in the Quran having been derived from God.”

Dr. E. Marshall Johnson is Professor Emeritus of Anatomy and Developmental Biology at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.  There, for 22 years he was Professor of Anatomy, the Chairman of the Department of Anatomy, and the Director of the Daniel Baugh Institute.  He was also the President of the Teratology Society.  He has authored more than 200 publications.  In 1981, during the Seventh Medical Conference in Dammam, Saudi Arabia, Professor Johnson said in the presentation of his research paper:

“Summary: The Quran describes not only the development of external form, but emphasizes also the internal stages, the stages inside the embryo, of its creation and development, emphasizing major events recognized by contemporary science.” 

Also he said: “As a scientist, I can only deal with things which I can specifically see.  I can understand embryology and developmental biology.  I can understand the words that are translated to me from the Quran.  As I gave the example before, if I were to transpose myself into that era, knowing what I knew today and describing things, I could not describe the things which were described.  I see no evidence for the fact to refute the concept that this individual, Muhammad, had to be developing this information from some place.  So I see nothing here in conflict with the concept that divine intervention was involved in what he was able to write.”

Dr. William W. Hay is a well-known marine scientist.  He is Professor of Geological Sciences at the University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USA.  He was formerly the Dean of the Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science at the University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USA.  After a discussion with Professor Hay about the Quran’s mention of recently discovered facts on seas, he said:

“I find it very interesting that this sort of information is in the ancient scriptures of the Holy Quran, and I have no way of knowing where they would come from, but I think it is extremely interesting that they are there and that this work is going on to discover it, the meaning of some of the passages.”  And when he was asked about the source of the Quran, he replied: “Well, I would think it must be the divine being.” 

PHARAOH

There are several verses in the Quran that show the King of Egypt (Pharaoh) during the time of Moses, actually thought he was a god. He and his people literally believed he was divine and should be worshiped.

He (Pharaoh) said, “If you take a god other than me, I will surely place you among those imprisoned.” Quran:26:29

سۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
قَالَ لَٮِٕنِ اتَّخَذۡتَ اِلٰهًا غَيۡرِىۡ لَاَجۡعَلَـنَّكَ مِنَ الۡمَسۡجُوۡنِيۡنَ‏ ﴿۲۹﴾

And Pharaoh said, “O eminent ones, I have not known you to have a god other than me. (Quran 28:38)

سۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
وَقَالَ فِرۡعَوۡنُ يٰۤـاَيُّهَا الۡمَلَاُ مَا عَلِمۡتُ لَـكُمۡ مِّنۡ اِلٰهٍ غَيۡرِىۡ‌ ۚ فَاَوۡقِدۡ لِىۡ يٰهَامٰنُ عَلَى الطِّيۡنِ فَاجۡعَلْ لِّىۡ صَرۡحًا لَّعَلِّىۡۤ اَطَّلِعُ اِلٰٓى اِلٰهِ مُوۡسٰى ۙ وَاِنِّىۡ لَاَظُنُّهٗ مِنَ الۡـكٰذِبِيۡنَ‏ ﴿۳۸﴾

And he (Pharaoh) said: “I am your Lord the Highest.” (Quran:79:24)

سۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
فَقَالَ اَنَا رَبُّكُمُ الۡاَعۡلٰى ۖ‏ ﴿۲۴﴾

This may not seem like a big deal to us these day because it’s common knowledge that the ancient Egyptians worshiped their Pharaohs. Modern archaeologists have explored the pyramids and other Egyptian ruins, translated the hieroglyphics, and have a very good understanding of their religion.

But how did Prophet Muhammad ﷺ know this? How did he ﷺ know this specific information?

He did not get it from the Bible because it’s not in the Bible. Nowhere in Exodus does it state the Pharaoh was worshiped as a deity by the ancient Egyptians. In fact, the biblical story of Moses does not emphasize any attempt by Moses to teach Pharaoh to worship Allah.

In the Bible, it’s all about taking the the Children of Israel out of slavery.

It is miraculous that the Quran tells us this specific bit of information about the Egyptian faith that could not have been known at that time. After all, the events of Moses’ (AS) time happened almost 3000 years before Prophet Muhammad ﷺ was born. The language and culture of ancient Egypt were lost and unknown by the time Prophet Muhammad ﷺ received his revelation.

We only have this information because of extensive exploration of Egyptian ruins and the discovery of the Rosetta Stone (1799 CE).

Many has made accusations saying that the Quran is not divine and not from GOD (Allah) and that Mohammed ﷺ has learnt the stories from other Christian and Jewish priest and presenting it as the Word of Allah.

The first proof to these allegations is the Messenger, Mohammed ﷺ. A prophet of Allah and a person with impeccable honesty and integrity. Even his enemies would intrust him with their valuables over their own people. From his life history and learning about his devoutness and love for Allah, we find it impossible that such a man that is also most loved by his creator would fabricate even a small part of the Quran. The fact that Mohammed ﷺ was unlettered and did not poses the capacity to fabricate such magnificence shows it highly impossible.

There are many such miracles in the Quran that proves that people of that time did not have such knowledge and certainly not the prophet Muhammad whos not schooled unlettered and could not write.

A Research on “Rhythm and Music” in the Quran conducted by Mircrothink Institute, International Journal of Lingquistics, proves that aspects of lauguage, style, music and sounds of the Quran is a miracle.

The word “miracle” expresses an event that is beyond the capacity of the men or the society. So greater the impossibility, greater the miracle will be (Taslaman, 2006).

This research focuses on the subtleties of the Qur’an and its beauties. The Qur’an contains literary gems in every Ayah, Passage and sura and this is one of its miraculous sign. It surpassed the high level of classical Arabic eloquence and has its own style, unique layout, features and a uniquely powerful message which inspire men to change their whole lifestyle and entirely guide them.

The miraculous aspects of the Qur’an can be: specific word choice, word order, emphasis, sounds and visuals produced within the text.

The Qur’an was sent for a specific goal and reason, so everything within it, including every sounds, letters, words, sentence structures, different chapters and sections are selected and put together meaningfully and consciously to convey its regarded meaning and benefit.

More Proofs of the Miracles in the Quran

Launguage and Style of the Quran

The Qur’an has audible beauty that hearing of it, the listener will feel the hypnotic emotional and beautiful effects of it, even if he doesn’t understand its language. The music of Qur’an is a magic which can change extremely the people hearts and emotions.

Alikhan (2008) believes although Arabic language is an eloquent and flowing language, has sometimes the traits of harsh sounds like “kh”, “Ha”, “Qaf”, etc. However, when the Qur’an recited throughout, it flows smoothly and has praised characteristics in comparison to other Arabic texts.

Another difference between the Qur’an and Arabic rhetoric or poetry is the consistency and frequency of literary within each Ayah. And also Qur’an style and content never defeated in competition by any poets. So one never gets bored by reading the Qur’an and this book will never become old.

As it is Proves the Qur’an Miraculous Languag is able to express specific meanings and images by using delicate sounds and this fact is part of an inimitable and outstanding style of the Qur’an.

سۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
وَلَقَدۡ يَسَّرۡنَا الۡقُرۡاٰنَ لِلذِّكۡرِ فَهَلۡ مِنۡ مُّدَّكِرٍ‏ ﴿۲۲﴾

And We have indeed made the Qur’an easy for admonition and to Understand, and remembrance, so is there any who will remember? (Quran 54:22)

The Qur’an has an easy and comprehensible language and style to help all human beings make communication with it. However, it is the Qur’an miraculous feature that is inimitable. In the Qur’an there are some verses which emphasis this fact. Such as follows:

سۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
قَالُوۡا سُبۡحٰنَكَ لَا عِلۡمَ لَنَآ اِلَّا مَا عَلَّمۡتَنَا ؕ اِنَّكَ اَنۡتَ الۡعَلِيۡمُ الۡحَكِيۡمُ‏ ﴿۳۲﴾

If you have any doubts about what we have sent down to Him, our servant, create a sura equal to it, and call your witnesses, except Allah, if you are truth full (Quran 2:23

سۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
اَمۡ يَقُوۡلُوۡنَ افۡتَـرٰٮهُ‌ ؕ قُلۡ فَاۡتُوۡا بِسُوۡرَةٍ مِّثۡلِهٖ وَادۡعُوۡا مَنِ اسۡتَطَعۡتُمۡ مِّنۡ دُوۡنِ اللّٰهِ اِنۡ كُنۡتُمۡ صٰدِقِيۡنَ‏ ﴿۳۸﴾

Do they (unbelievers) say, Muhammad has himself invented the Qur’an, say create a sura equal to it and call on anyone to help you except Allah, if you are truthful?(Quran, 10: 38).

 So as it is clearly mentioned in the Qur’an, the effective, elegant and unique style of the Qur’an cannot be imitated by anyone to the end of the world.Gold also calls on anyone saying that the Qur’an is not the word of Allah and challenges him/her to bring that is better. After 1440 years no one was able to meet this challenge.

The Rhyming and System in the Qur’an

The rhyming system in the Qur’an is known as “rhymed prose” and linguists describe the use of this rhyme in the Qur’an as a miracle (Yahya, 2005).

In other words, the form and the rhyme used in the Qur’an are special and unique in a way that can’t be found in Arabic literature.

In the Qur’an 29 suras begin with one or more symbolic letters which are known as “Muqatta’ah – letters”. 14 of 29 letters in Arabic comprise these initial letters: Qaf, sad, Ta, Ha, Ya, Sin, Alif,

Lam, Mim, kaf, ‘Ayn, Nun, Ra, Ha. Analyzing the rhyming system in the Qur’an shows that there is rhyme with the letter “Nun” in 88.8% of the verses. 84.6% of sura ash-shu’ara’, 90.32% of sura an-Naml and 92.05% of sura al-Qasas. When applying these studies to the whole Qur’an, 50.08% is rhymed with the letter “Nun”. In no literary work of comparable length has it been possible to rhyme with a single sound in more than half the text (Yahya, 2005).

Examining the rhyme scheme in the Qur’an shows that 80% of the rhymes consist of just 3 sounds (n, m, a) Consist of just 3sounds (n, m, a) consisting of the letters Alif, Mim, Ya and Nun. So 50.08% of the verses are rhymed with “Nun” and 30% of them are rhymed with “Mim”, “Alif” or “Ya”.

This analysis shows that the rhymed prose in the Qur’an is formed of just two or three sounds; this proves that the Qur’an is a miraculous masterpiece with an outstanding literary characteristics.

Summary

History shows that the Prophet Mohammed ﷺ was a remarkable person, a prophet of Allah who has dedicated his life in the perfection of his religion, conveying Allah’s message and in his worship of Allah. He was known by everyone as a person who was honest and most trusted which earned him the name Al-Amien.

It is therefore inconceivable to think that Mohammed ﷺ, an unlettered and uneducated man could have the ability to create such a masterpiece himself neither has any person then or even in today’s time be capable of creating even a chapter similar to that of the Quran.

Those who say Mohammed ﷺ has copied scientific facts from the Greeks. Who were the Greeks that Mohammed ﷺ got the information from? How did these Greeks obtain this information as it is not in the Bible or any other scripture! When did he meet with these Greeks and where? What were these Greeks doing in Saudi Arabia? Who was the scribes who wrote it down from these Greeks for Mohammed ﷺ as he could not read nor write? Many such acquisitions are levelled against the prophet Mohammed ﷺ but no one can provide any proof. Mohammed ﷺ was always surrounded by companions so when did he get the opportunity to slip away and obtain this information?

Allah has challenged anyone who has doubt to produce something that is better and in 1440 no person could meet this challenge. It is also unthinkable that a man and prophet of Allah with such honesty and integrity, whose life was in total dedication to Allah, be capable of such accusations.

It should be noted that if Muhammad ﷺ was capable of doing such a despicable thing then there is no way people will find him to be an honest person. A man cannot be honest and pious and a dishonest person at the same time. There is no way that anyone would be capable of pulling off such an elaborate rues and fool almost 2 billion people. Remember, Muhammad ﷺ had many enemies who constantly watched his every move looking for an opportunity to show people that he was a fraud but they could never fault his honesty. Though they regarded him as the enemy they trusted him so much that they would leave there goods with him for safe keeping. If he had to copy other scripture then a scribe would have had to be with him and the scribe would see that he was a fraud and he would surely report this to others.

Muhammad ﷺ stood in prayer for most of every night for such a long time that his wife Aisha thought he has died. On the day of Arafa before he delivered his last sermon he raised his hands up to Allah and prayed for 6 hours. Would a dishonest person go to such extreme lengthens so that his Lord would be pleased with him?  

Secondly, if Muhammad ﷺ had copied the Quran then surely he would have done it for self-recognition but the Quran infact only mentions Mohammed ﷺ 4 times but mentions Jesus 25 times and Mary approximately 70 times. An entire chapter is dedicated to Mary. Mary is mentioned more times in the Quran than in the entire new testimony and is the only woman mentioned by name in the Quran. His only call to all of humanity is to worship Allah as One, that we live in obedience to Allah and be good to each other, that we support the poor and needy and that we abstain from evil and wrong doing and be aware of the Satan.

If Muhammad ﷺ was a liar and a dishonest person as Christians allege then why will Muhammad be the only person on the day of Judgment to call out to Allah to save his Ummah (his people) when every other prophet including Jesus Christ will tell there people that they cannot help them?

On the Day of Judgement, when all will cry ‘nafsi, nafsi’ (‘myself, myself’), only Muhammad al-Mustafa ﷺ will say ‘ummati, ummati’ (‘my people, my people’)

On the authority of Anas (may Allah be pleased with him) from the Prophet ﷺ, who said:

The believers will gather together on the Day of Resurrection and will say: Should we not ask [someone] to intercede for us with our Lord? So they will come to Adam and will say: You are the Father of mankind; Allah created you with His hand He made His angels bow down to you and He taught you the names of everything, so intercede for us with you Lord so that He may give us relief from this place where we are. And he will say: I am not in a position [to do that] – and he will mention his wrongdoing and will feel ashamed and will say: Go to Noah, for he is the first messenger that Allah sent to the inhabitants of the earth. So they will come to him and he will say: I am not in a position [to do that] – and he will mention his having requested something of his Lord about which he had no [proper] knowledge (Quran Chapter 11 Verses 45-46), and he will feel ashamed and will say: Go to the Friend of the Merciful (Abraham). So they will come to him and he will say: I am not in a position [to do that]. Go to Moses, a servant to whom Allah talked and to whom He gave the Torah. So they will come to him and he will say: I am not in a position [to do that] – and he will mention the talking of a life other that for a life (Quran Chapter 28 Verses 15-16), and he will feel ashamed in the sight of his Lord and will say: Go to Jesus, Allah’s servant and messenger, Allah’s word and spirit. So they will come to him and he will say: I am not in a position [to do that]. Go to Muhammad (may the blessings and peace of Allah be upon him), a servant to whom Allah has forgiven all his wrongdoing, past and future. So they will come to me and I shall set forth to ask permission to come to my Lord, and permission will be given, and when I shall see my Lord I shall prostrate myself. He will leave me thus for such time as it pleases Him, and then it will be said [to me]: Raise your head. Ask and it will be granted. Speak and it will be heard. Intercede and your intercession will be accepted. So I shall raise my head and praise Him with a form of praise that He will teach me. Then I shall intercede and HE will set me a limit [as to the number of people], so I shall admit them into Paradise. Then I shall return to Him, and when I shall see my Lord [I shall bow down] as before. Then I shall intercede and He will set me a limit [as to the number of people]. So I shall admit them into Paradise. Then I shall return for a third time, then a fourth, and I shall say: There remains in Hell-fire only those whom the Quran has confined and who must be there for eternity. There shall come out of Hell-fire he who has said: There is no god but Allah and who has in his heart goodness weighing a barley-corn; then there shall come out of Hell-fire he who has said: There is no god but Allah and who has in his heart goodness weighing a grain of wheat; then there shall come out of Hell-fire he who has said: There is no god but Allah and who has in his heart goodness weighing an atom. [It was related by al-Bukhari (also by Muslim , at-Tirmidhi, and Ibn Majah).]

Abu Huraira said: The prophet of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: There is for every opostle a prayer which is granted, but every prophet showed haste in his prayer. I have, howver, reserved, and it would be granted, if Allah so willed, incase of every amongst my Ummah provided h dies without associating anthing with Allah – 1/389 Muslim

As you can see, Muhammad ﷺ was a selfless person totally commited to Allah and helping his followers.

When reading the Quran one gets the feeling that the Quran is speaking directly to you by the author (Allaha) who is always in the first person.

The miracles contained in the Quran proves that only Allah has knowledge of all things unknown to anyone especially at the time. The fact that the Quran has been preserved perfectly for 1440 years with not one letter changed during all this time, proves that Allah is its guardian and protector when every other book has been corrupted and changed by man.  

The Quran gives guidance to all of mankind in all aspects. The Quran provides us with guidance for everything and shows us the erros of our ways.  

The Prphets Muhammed’s Last Serman

Prophet Muhammed ﷺ delivered his last sermon (Khutbah) on the ninth of Dhul Hijjah (12th and last month of the Islamic year), 10 years after Hijrah (migration from Makkah to Madinah) in the Uranah Valley of mount Arafat. His words were quite clear and concise and were directed to the entire humanity.
After praising, and thanking Allah he said:

“O People, lend me an attentive ear, for I know not whether after this year, I shall ever be amongst you again. Therefore listen to what I am saying to you very carefully and take these words to those who could not be present here today.

O people, just as you regard this month, this day, this city as Sacred, so regard the life and property of every Muslim as a sacred trust. Return the goods entrusted to you to their rightful owners. Hurt no one so that no one may hurt you. Remember that you will indeed meet your Lord, and that He will indeed reckon your deeds. Allah has forbidden you to take usury (interest), therefore all interest obligation shall henceforth be waived. Your capital, however, is yours to keep. You will neither inflict nor suffer any inequity. Allah has Judged that there shall be no interest and that all the interest due to Abbas ibn Abd Al-Muttalib (Prophet’s uncle) shall henceforth be waived…

Beware of Satan, for the safety of your religion. He has lost all hope that he will ever be able to lead you astray in big things, so beware of following him in small things.

O people, it is true that you have certain rights with regard to your women, but they also have rights over you. Remember that you have taken them as your wives only under Allah’s trust and with His permission. If they abide by your right then to them belongs the right to be fed and clothed in kindness. Do treat your women well and be kind to them for they are your partners and committed helpers. And it is your right that they do not make friends with any one of whom you do not approve, as well as never to be unchaste.

O people, listen to me in earnest, worship Allah, say your five daily prayers (Salah), fast during the month of Ramadan, and give your wealth in Zakat. Perform Hajj if you can afford to. All mankind is from Adam and Eve, an Arab has no superiority over a non-Arab nor a non-Arab has any superiority over an Arab; also a white has no superiority over black nor a black has any superiority over white except by piety (taqwa) and good action. Learn that every Muslim is a brother to every Muslim and that the Muslims constitute one brotherhood. Nothing shall be legitimate to a Muslim which belongs to a fellow Muslim unless it was given freely and willingly. Do not, therefore, do injustice to yourselves. Remember, one day you will appear before Allah and answer your deeds. So beware, do not stray from the path of righteousness after I am gone.

O people, no prophet or apostle will come after me and no new faith will be born. Reason well, therefore, O people, understand my words which I convey to you. I leave behind me two things, the Qu’ran and my example, the Sunnah and if you follow these you will never go astray.

All those who listen to me shall pass on my words to others and those to others again; and may the last ones understand my words better than those who listen to me directly. Be my witness, “O Allah, that I have conveyed your message to your people”.

(Reference: See Al-Bukhari, Hadith 1623, 1626, 6361) Sahih of Imam Muslim also refers to this sermon in Hadith number 98.

Thus the prophet Mohammed ﷺ completed his Final Sermon, and upon it, he receiced the final revelation from Allah:

سۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
حُرِّمَتۡ عَلَيۡكُمُ الۡمَيۡتَةُ وَالدَّمُ وَلَحۡمُ الۡخِنۡزِيۡرِ وَمَاۤ اُهِلَّ لِغَيۡرِ اللّٰهِ بِهٖ وَالۡمُنۡخَنِقَةُ وَالۡمَوۡقُوۡذَةُ وَالۡمُتَرَدِّيَةُ وَالنَّطِيۡحَةُ وَمَاۤ اَكَلَ السَّبُعُ اِلَّا مَا ذَكَّيۡتُمۡ وَمَا ذُ بِحَ عَلَى النُّصُبِ وَاَنۡ تَسۡتَقۡسِمُوۡا بِالۡاَزۡلَامِ‌ ؕ ذٰ لِكُمۡ فِسۡقٌ‌ ؕ اَلۡيَوۡمَ يَٮِٕسَ الَّذِيۡنَ كَفَرُوۡا مِنۡ دِيۡـنِكُمۡ فَلَا تَخۡشَوۡهُمۡ وَاخۡشَوۡنِ‌ ؕ اَ لۡيَوۡمَ اَكۡمَلۡتُ لَـكُمۡ دِيۡنَكُمۡ وَاَ تۡمَمۡتُ عَلَيۡكُمۡ نِعۡمَتِىۡ وَرَضِيۡتُ لَـكُمُ الۡاِسۡلَامَ دِيۡنًا‌ ؕ فَمَنِ اضۡطُرَّ فِىۡ مَخۡمَصَةٍ غَيۡرَ مُتَجَانِفٍ لِّاِثۡمٍ‌ۙ فَاِنَّ اللّٰهَ غَفُوۡرٌ رَّحِيۡمٌ‏‏ ﴿۳﴾

Prohibited to you are dead animals, blood, the flesh of swine, and that which has been dedicated to other than Allah, and [those animals] killed by strangling or by a violent blow or by a head-long fall or by the goring of horns, and those from which a wild animal has eaten, except what you [are able to] slaughter [before its death], and those which are sacrificed on stone altars, and [prohibited is] that you seek decision through divining arrows. That is grave disobedience. This day those who disbelieve have despaired of [defeating] your religion; so fear them not, but fear Me. This day I have perfected for you your religion and completed My favor upon you and have chosen for you Islam as your religion….. (Quran 5:3)

Never before has any prophet said to his follows that God has chosen for them any religion until the last revelation of the Quran. The core message of every religion is that God is ONE and that people must obey the laws of God, staying away from wrong and evil and being good to each other. The Torah, the Bible and the Quran talks of Adam and the past prophets and the message they brought to the people but only in the Quran does Allah say that he has perfected our (all of mankind) religion meaning the Only religion, the One religion that has been taught by all prophets, Islam (willing submission to Allah).

Many people has made numerous accusations against the Quran and the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ and thousands of books have been written by non-Muslims trying to prove that there are errors in the Quran, the the Quran is not the word of God and that the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ had copied the Quran and the Quran answeres all these people.

سۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
اَفَلَا يَتَدَبَّرُوۡنَ الۡقُرۡاٰنَ‌ؕ وَلَوۡ كَانَ مِنۡ عِنۡدِ غَيۡرِ اللّٰهِ لَوَجَدُوۡا فِيۡهِ اخۡتِلَافًا كَثِيۡرًا‏ ﴿۸۲﴾

Then do they not reflect upon the Qur’an? If it had been from [any] other than Allah, they would have found within it much contradiction. (Quran 4:82)

سۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
وَمَا كَانَ هٰذَا الۡقُرۡاٰنُ اَنۡ يُّفۡتَـرٰى مِنۡ دُوۡنِ اللّٰهِ وَلٰـكِنۡ تَصۡدِيۡقَ الَّذِىۡ بَيۡنَ يَدَيۡهِ وَتَفۡصِيۡلَ الۡكِتٰبِ لَا رَيۡبَ فِيۡهِ مِنۡ رَّبِّ الۡعٰلَمِيۡنَ‏ ﴿۳۷﴾  

And it was not [possible] for this Qur’an to be produced by other than Allah, but [it is] a confirmation of what was before it and a detailed explanation of the [former] Scripture, about which there is no doubt, from the Lord of the worlds. (Quran 10:37)

سۡمِ اللهِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِيۡمِ
اَمۡ يَقُوۡلُوۡنَ افۡتَـرٰٮهُ‌ ؕ قُلۡ فَاۡتُوۡا بِسُوۡرَةٍ مِّثۡلِهٖ وَادۡعُوۡا مَنِ اسۡتَطَعۡتُمۡ مِّنۡ دُوۡنِ اللّٰهِ اِنۡ كُنۡتُمۡ صٰدِقِيۡنَ‏ ﴿۳۸﴾

Or do they say [about the Prophet], “He invented it?” Say, “Then bring forth a surah like it and call upon [for assistance] whomever you can besides Allah, if you should be truthful.” (Quran 10:38)

In 1440 years not word person has produced convincing proof of there claims. All the claims made are factually incorrect and a gross misrepresentaton of the facts. Everyone of these claims have been proven wrong.

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